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WNC Orchard Insect Populations

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Apples in basket with picking sackOctober 11, 2021

The final orchard insect pest summary of 2021 was on September 14. Trap counts and degree days will continue to be updated until populations approach zero. Insect summaries and recommendations will resume in April 2022!


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 27 Oct 4 Oct 11
Codling moth  0.0 0.0 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 13.0 6.5 0.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 ended
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 ended
Obliquebanded leafroller 1.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 ended
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.3 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 18.0 25.0 3.3
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 7.9 9.6 9.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 3.0 12.0 2.0
Dogwood borer 7.0 3.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 2.0 3.0 2.0
Lesser peachtree borer 5.0 17.0 2.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Sep 27 Oct 4 Oct 11
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10) 3023 3123 3242
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27) 3936 4066 4220
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30) 3577 3707 3861

About degree-day models


2021 Pest Trends (click to enlarge)

Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends


PREVIOUS UPDATES

October 4, 2021Ladder in apple orchard at harvest

The final orchard insect pest summary of 2021 was on September 14. Trap counts and degree days will continue to be updated until populations approach zero. Insect summaries and recommendations will resume in April 2022!


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 20 Sep 27 Oct 4
Codling moth  0.0 0.0 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 45.0 13.0 6.5
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 ended
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 ended
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 1.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 ended
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.3 0.3 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 16.0 18.0 25.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 42.0 7.9 9.6
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 3.0 12.0
Dogwood borer 7.0 1.0 3.0
Peachtree borer 2.0 2.0 3.0
Lesser peachtree borer 5.0 4.0 17.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Sep 20 Sep 27 Oct 4
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10) 2930 3023 3123
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27) 3809 3936 4066
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30) 3450 3577 3707

About degree-day models


September 28, 2021Apples on apple tree

The final orchard insect pest summary of 2021 was on September 14. Trap counts and degree days will continue to be updated until populations approach zero. Insect summaries and recommendations will resume in April 2022!


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 13 Sep 20 Sep 27
Codling moth  0.0 0.0 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 34.0 45.0 13.0
Tufted apple bud moth 1.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 1.0 0.0 1.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.3 0.3 0.3
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 23.8 16.0 18.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 46.5 42.0 7.9
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 3.0
Dogwood borer 20.0 7.0 1.0
Peachtree borer 3.0 2.0 2.0
Lesser peachtree borer 8.0 5.0 4.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Sep 13 Sep 20 Sep 27
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
2781 2930 3023
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
3631 3809 3936
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
3272 3450 3577

About degree-day models


Apple orchard and barnSeptember 21, 2021

The final orchard insect pest summary of 2021 was on September 14. Trap counts and degree days will continue to be updated until populations approach zero. Insect summaries and recommendations will resume in April 2022!


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 7 Sep 13 Sep 20
Codling moth  0.0 0.0 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 43.0 34.0 45.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 1.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 1.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 1.3 0.3 0.3
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 25.0 23.8 16.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 41.0 46.5 42.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 21.0 20.0 7.0
Peachtree borer 17.0 3.0 2.0
Lesser peachtree borer 24.0 8.0 5.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Sep 7 Sep 13 Sep 20
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
2685 2781 2930
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
3498 3631 3809
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
3139 3272 3450

About degree-day models


September 14, 2021

Last Pest Update of 2021 and BMSB Still Reigns!

Brown marmorated stink bug damage on appleFor all practical purposes, brown marmorated stink bug remains the only pest of apples throughout the region. You have probably noticed many beginning to disperse to buildings, cars and other structures, which is a response to declining day length and an effort to locate overwintering sites. However, before they enter overwintering sites they need to consume food to build up fat reserves to survive the winter, and apples remain an ideal food source. While much of the population has completed emergence in lower elevation sites (i.e., Cleveland County), approximately 25% and 45% of first generation adults have yet to emerge in Wilkes and Henderson County, respectively. As these adults emerge and seek food, apples will remain at risk, especially highly susceptible cultivars such as Granny Smith and Pink Lady. Hence, control may still be necessary on apples that will not be harvested until October.

This will be the last Apple Pest Update of 2021. Our sense is that it was a relatively cool year with fairly low pest pressure – other than late-season BMSB populations. Hopefully the remainder of harvest runs smoothly with no problems.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 31 Sep 7 Sep 13
Codling moth  0.0 0.0 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 54.0 43.0 34.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 1.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 1.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 2.7 1.3 0.3
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 28.0 25.0 23.8
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 29.5 41.0 46.5
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 33.0 21.0 20.0
Peachtree borer 18.0 17.0 3.0
Lesser peachtree borer 31.0 24.0 8.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Aug 31 Sep 7 Sep 13
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
2519 2685 2781
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
3293 3498 3631
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
2934 3139 3272

About degree-day models


September 8, 2021

Brown marmorated stink bug populations continue to increase throughout the region. Captures on pheromone traps averaged 21.7 in Cleveland County and 28.1 in Henderson County. These are high numbers, and indicate that they still pose a threat to late-maturing apples. An insecticide application is recommended on anything that will be harvested in more than two weeks. Based on the degree-day model, first generation emergence is approximately 50, 75 and 97% complete in Henderson, Wilkes and Cleveland Counties.

Chart showing brown marmorated stink bug population trends


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 23 Aug 31 Sep 7
Codling moth  0.5 0.0 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 20.0 54.0 43.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 1.3 2.7 1.3
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 12.5 28.0 25.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 12.1 29.5 41.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 17.0 33.0 21.0
Peachtree borer 20.0 18.0 17.0
Lesser peachtree borer 45.0 31.0 24.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Aug 23 Aug 31 Sep 7
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
2342 2519 2685
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
3081 3293 3498
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
2722 2934 3139

About degree-day models


Brown marmorated stink bug trapAugust 31, 2021

Brown marmorated stink bug adult emergence continues across all apple production areas, ranging from about 40% complete in Henderson County to almost 90% in Cleveland County. Pheromone trap captures also increased by more than two-fold during the past week in Henderson County, indicative of the increasing populations. Across 9 different locations in Henderson County, trap captures averaged about 26 per trap. In Cleveland County, trap captures remained steady at about 12 per trap. Continued protection of apples that are at least 10 to 14 days from harvest is recommended. Check the list of BMSB recommended insecticides for preharvest intervals.

Brown marmorated stink bug population chart


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 16 Aug 23 Aug 31
Codling moth  0.5 0.5 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 17.5 20.0 54.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 1.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.7 1.3 2.7
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 6.5 12.5 29.5
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 4.5 12.1 28.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 10.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 33.0 17.0 33.0
Peachtree borer 9.0 20.0 18.0
Lesser peachtree borer 24.0 45.0 31.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Aug 16 Aug 23 Aug 31
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
2175 2342 2934
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
2879 3081 3293
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
2520 2722 2934

About degree-day models


August 25, 2021

Brown marmorated stink bug damage on appleFirst generation adults of the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) continue to emerge in all production areas. As shown in the figure below, approximately 80% of adults have emerged in Cleveland County as of 25 August, compared to about 50% in Wilkes County and 40% in Henderson County. As emergence progresses we continue to see pheromone trap captures increase in most areas. With warm weather predicted for the foreseeable future, average trap captures across the region increased from an average of about 5 per trap last week to 12 this week. Expect BMSB pressure to remain intense through September.

Chart showing brown marmorated stink bug emergence

Other Pests: The first Apple Maggot flies on traps at our abandoned site were finally captured during the past week. This is quite late, and only four were detected. Based on the Codling Moth degree-day model, second generation egg laying is nearly complete in Henderson County (2390 DD), while in Cleveland County third generation egg laying is about 23% complete (3035 DD). However, populations are very low and do not pose a threat in the majority of orchards. Oriental Fruit Moth populations are also low in managed orchards, and insecticides applied for stink bugs have contributed to suppression of this pest.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 9 Aug 16 Aug 23
Codling moth  0.5 0.5 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 20.0 17.5 20.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 2.0 1.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.7 0.7 1.3
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 7.5 6.5 12.5
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 3.9 4.5 12.1
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 10.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 25.0 33.0 17.0
Peachtree borer 15.0 9.0 20.0
Lesser peachtree borer 15.0 24.0 45.0
San Jose scale 2.5 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Aug 9 Aug 16 Aug 23
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
2000 2175 2342
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
2668 2879 3081
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
2309 2520 2722

About degree-day models


August 17, 2021

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: First generation adult emergence is underway in all production areas, ranging from only about 10% of the population in Henderson County to almost 70% complete in the lower elevations of Cleveland and Lincoln Counties (see below). While total numbers are beginning to level off in lower elevations, expect numbers to continue to increase over the next month in higher elevations.

In recent years we’ve learned that Granny Smith are highly attractive to BMSB and incur much more damage than any other cultivar. Under high BMSB pressure, even weekly spray intervals have not prevented damage on Grannies. With the exception of Gala, significant damage has been observed on most other cultivars under high BMSB pressure, particularly Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Delicious, Rome and Fuji.

Apple orchardDepending on harvest date, in past years one or two well-timed pyrethroid sprays in late August and early to mid September has provided good control on non-Granny culitvars harvested in mid to late September. However, BMSB populations can vary considerably among locations, For instance, the mean adult capture on traps in commercial orchards during the past week averaged 6.0 per trap, but ranged from 0 to 30. If unsure of the population density in your orchard, one should probably assume that an average of 6 adults per trap over one week warrants a spray.

Other Pests:  Populations of other key pests that occur at this time have been relatively low, including apple maggot, codling moth and oriental fruit moth. There has been some damage to apples reported that has been difficult to identify, but at this time it is assumed to be caused by first generation plum curculio adults. First generation adults emerge during the month of July and into early August in NC, and before seeking overwintering sites they will feed on fruit. In some instances, particularly lower elevations, they may also oviposit, but this is not common where apples are grown.

Suspected first generation adult plum curculio damage

Suspected 1st generation adult plum curculio damage



Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 2 Aug 9 Aug 16
Codling moth  2.0 0.5 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 19.5 20.0 17.5
Tufted apple bud moth 1.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 4.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 2.0 2.0 1.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.7 0.7
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 3.0 7.5 6.5
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 3.4 3.9 4.5
Spotted tentiform leafminer 4.0 0.0 10.0
Dogwood borer 21.0 25.0 33.0
Peachtree borer 3.0 15.0 9.0
Lesser peachtree borer 9.0 15.0 24.0
San Jose scale 0.0 2.5 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Aug 2 Aug 9 Aug 16
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
1858 2000 2175
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
2491 2668 2879
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
2132 2309 2520

About degree-day models


August 10, 2021

Brown marmorated stink bug trapBrown Marmorated Stink Bug: As shown in the chart below, emergence of first generation adults is well underway in the Cleveland/Lincoln County (about 60% complete) and Wilkes County (18% complete) areas, so the threat for damage will continue to increase over the coming weeks at both locations. Cooler temperatures in Henderson County and at higher elevations has delayed emergence, but the model predicts initial emergence Friday (8/13). Based on temperature forecasts, emergence in Henderson County will be about 10% complete next Tuesday (8/17), at which time control on susceptible cultivars should begin.

Chart showing brown marmorated stink bug emergence

Codling Moth and Oriental Fruit Moth:  With only a few exceptions, populations of the two key lepidopteran pests have been relatively low this year in managed orchards. Based on the degree-day model, in Henderson County (2016 DD) we are nearing the end of the second generation egg laying period, while in Lincoln County (2605 DD) emergence of the third generation is about 25% complete. While oriental fruit moth populations remain low in most commercial orchards, populations often begin to increase this time of the year in orchards not using mating disruption. However, pyrethroids applied for BMSB are highly effective at controlling this pest.

Apple Maggot:  As of 9 August we have caught only 2 apple maggot flies on traps on the research station and 0 in our abandoned orchard. These captures are lower and later than previous years.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jul 26 Aug 2 Aug 9
Codling moth  1.5 2.0 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 18.0 19.5 20.0
Tufted apple bud moth 1.0 1.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 4.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 3.0 2.0 2.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.7
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 7.0 3.0 7.5
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 5.0 3.4 3.9
Spotted tentiform leafminer 2.0 4.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 24.0 21.0 25.0
Peachtree borer 27.0 3.0 15.0
Lesser peachtree borer 13.0 9.0 15.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 2.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jul 26 Aug 2 Aug 9
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
1678 1858 2000
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
2279 2491 2668
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
1920 2132 2309

About degree-day models


August 3, 2021

Codling Moth Threat Declines, Stink Bug Populations on the Rise

Apple orchard and mountainsCodling moth: Second generation flight of the codling moth is complete or nearly complete in all regions except for elevations >2500 ft. In lower elevation orchards (less than about 1200 ft), third generation adult emergence will begin this weekend based on degree-day predictions. However, if populations have not been problematic up to this point in time, it is highly doubtful that problems would arise this late in the year.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug:  Based on DD accumulations at three different production sites (Cleveland, Henderson and Wilkes Counties), emergence of first generation adults is about 40% complete in the lower elevation of Cleveland County (see graph below) and is just beginning in Wilkes County. Now is an important time for insecticidal control of BMSB in orchards at elevations 1500 ft and lower. Emergence in Henderson County is predicted to begin on 13 August. See the 20 July update for BMSB insecticide recommendations.Graph of stink bug population growth

Apple Maggot:  We have still not observed apple maggot flies on traps in our abandoned orchard in Henderson County. While this is a little late for emergence to not yet have begun, it is not entirely unusual. However, emergence can vary among locations, so trapping in individual orchards is encouraged.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jul 19 Jul 26 Aug 2
Codling moth  0.5 1.5 2.0
Oriental fruit moth 28.0 18.0 19.5
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 1.0 1.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 4.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 3.0 2.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 5.5 7.0 3.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 2.1 5.0 3.4
Spotted tentiform leafminer 5.0 2.0 4.0
Dogwood borer 21.0 24.0 21.0
Peachtree borer 19.0 27.0 32.0
Lesser peachtree borer 17.0 13.0 9.0
San Jose scale 5.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jul 19 Jul 26 Aug 2
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
1512 1678 1858
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
2057 2279 2491
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
1860 1920 2132

About degree-day models


July 27, 2021

Codling Moth and BMSB are Key Target Pests

Codling moth: Degree-day accumulations range from about 1770 in Henderson County to 2220 in Cleveland County. This coincides with completion of 32% hatch of second generation eggs in Henderson to >80% in Cleveland. In orchards with low pheromone trap captures there should be no need for additional insecticides targeting this generation. While there will definitely be sufficient heat and time for a third generation in lower elevations, this generation is only a concern when high levels of control were not achieved in earlier generations.

Newly-molted adult brown marmorated stink bug and nymphBrown marmorated stink bug: The figure below shows predicted emergence of first generation brown marmorated stink bug adults, the most damaging stage on apples and other crops. The line shows that emergence begins at about 740 DD (biofix is 4 April) and is nearly complete at about 1400 DD. As of today (27 July), about 25% of adults have emerged in the lower elevation of Cleveland County (831 DD), but emergence has not yet begun in Wilkes (684 DD) or Henderson (591 DD). An initial insecticide application is recommended at about 10% emergence, or 780 DD, so now is an important time to protect crops in lower elevation orchards.

Based on the weather forecast, 780 DD is predicted for 3 August in Wilkes County, but not for about two weeks in Henderson County and higher elevations. However, in some locations we have trapped high numbers of overwintered adults, so an earlier application may be warranted on highly susceptible cultivars such as Granny Smith and Pink Lady.

Apple Maggot:  As of yet we have not detected emergence of apple maggot flies in our abandoned orchard in Henderson County. Emergence of apple maggot begins about 1 August, so first capture should not be far off. Remember that insecticides recommended for BMSB also control apple maggot, and orchards adjacent to an abandoned orchard are most susceptible to damage.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jul 12 Jul 19 Jul 26
Codling moth  0.5 0.5 1.5
Oriental fruit moth 22.0 28.0 18.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 1.0
Redbanded leafroller 1.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 3.0
Lesser appleworm n/a 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.9 5.5 7.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.5 2.1 5.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 4.0 5.0 2.0
Dogwood borer 27.0 21.0 24.0
Peachtree borer 17.0 19.0 27.0
Lesser peachtree borer 14.0 17.0 13.0
San Jose scale 5.0 5.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jul 13 Jul 19 Jul 26
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
1355 1512 1678
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
1885 2057 2279
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
1527 1860 1920

About degree-day models


July 20, 2021

2nd Generation Codling Moth in Higher Elevations, BMSB in Lower Elevations

Codling moth eggs on appleCodling Moth: In higher elevation orchards such as Henderson County, second generation codling moth DD accumulations average about 1512, compared to 2056 in lower elevation Cleveland County. The 1512 cumulative DD in Henderson correlates with about 15% egg hatch of the second generation. If not using mating disruption, now is an excellent time for insecticidal control of this generation. While pheromone trap captures should be used to judge population abundance and the need for additional applications, one application is usually sufficient against in low-population orchards.

In lower elevation orchards (i.e., about 1000 ft elevation), second generation egg hatch is about 75% complete, and if populations have not been an issue up to this point it is doubtful problems will start now. However, there are some locations where moth captures in pheromone traps remain high, so insecticidal control may still be necessary in these orchards.

Stink bug on appleBrown Marmorated Stink Bug: In lower elevation orchards, first generation adult emergence is now underway. Cumulative BMSB DD accumulations in Cleveland County are at 761, which coincides with emergence of 5% of the population. However, emergence will increase to 25% complete in the next week, so insecticidal control is important at this time.

In higher elevations, DD accumulations range from 530 in Henderson County (2100 ft) to 600 in Wilkes County (1400 ft). We are still at least two to three weeks away from initial emergence (750 DD) in these locations.

(Apple Maggot captures on traps remain extremely low in Henderson County. It is typically early August when emergence begins, but insecticides recommended for BMSB are also effective against this pest. Also, emergence patterns can vary among sites, so individual trapping is recommended.)

Insecticide Recommendations for Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: For the past 7 years there has been a Section 18 label for bifenthrin and dinotefuran for control of the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) on apples and peaches in NC. A Section 18 is an emergency exemption request submitted by states to the EPA to control a pest(s) (often new) for which there are no or few effective pesticides registered on the target crop. We have learned much about the efficacy of various insecticides for control of BMSB since it first became a pest in NC, and there are numerous other pyrethroids and neonicotinoids that control BMSB (see table below). In view of the large selection of insecticides that control this insect, a Section 18 for bifenthrin and dinotefuran was not requested for 2021. Below is a list of insecticides that will provide excellent control of BMSB on apples.

Insecticides recommended for control of BMSB on apples in North Carolina

Common name  Trade Name  Rate/A PHI(days) Maximum per acre/season
Neonicotinoids
*Thiamethoxam Actara 25WDG 4.5 oz 35 16.5 oz
 Chlothianidin Belay 2.13SC 4 to 6 fl oz 7 12 fl oz
Pyrethroids
 Beta-cyfluthrin Baythroid 1EC, Sultrus 2.4 fl oz 14 2.8 fl oz
 Cyfluthrin Tombstone 2EC 2.4 fl oz 7 2.8 fl oz
 Fenpropathrin Danitol 2.4EC 16 to 21 fl oz 14 42.6 fl oz
 Gamma-cyhalothrin Proaxis 0.5EC, Declare 2.6 to 5.1 fl oz 21 20.5 fl oz
 *Lambda-cyhalothrin Warrior II 2.08CS, many generics 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 21 12.8 fl oz
 Zeta-cypermethrin Mustang Maxx 0.8EC, Respect 2 to 4 fl oz 14 24 fl oz
Premixes

 *Lambda-cyhalothrin

+ chlorantraniliprole

Besiege CS

0.417CS lam-cy

0.834CS chlorantiliprole

6 to 12 fl oz 21 31 fl oz

 *Lambda-cyhalothrin

+

thiamethoxam

Endigo ZC

0.88ZC lambda-cyhalothrin

1.18ZC thiamethoxam

 

5 to 6 fl oz 35 21 fl oz

*A maximum of 0.2 lbs AI of lambda-cyhalothrin and 0.258 lbs AI of thiamethoxam per acre per season may be applied, regardless of the formulation used.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jul 6 Jul 13 Jul 19
Codling moth  2.5 0.5 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 33.5 22.0 28.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 4.0 1.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 3.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 n/a 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 2.8 1.9 5.5
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 4.0 0.5 2.1
Spotted tentiform leafminer 13.0 4.0 5.0
Dogwood borer 39.0 27.0 21.0
Peachtree borer 14.0 17.0 19.0
Lesser peachtree borer 29.0 14.0 17.0
San Jose scale 0.0 5.0 5.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jul 6 Jul 13 Jul 19
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
1220 1355 1512
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
1721 1885 2057
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
1362 1527 1860

About degree-day models


July 13, 2021

2nd Generation Codling Moth Remains Key Pest

In orchards with elevation of about 2000 ft or greater (e.g., Henderson, Haywood, Wilkes, etc.) we are approaching the optimum time for an insecticide targeting second-generation codling moth.  Degree-day accumulations in Henderson County are about 1370 as of July 13, and 1400 DD will occur later this week. In most cases a single application is sufficient for most orchards, the exception being where high populations exist – this is most easily based on pheromone trap captures >5 moths per week, or the presence of at least 0.5% damaged fruit up to this point in time.

As mentioned in previous posts, insecticides targeting second generation codling moth are usually not necessary where using mating disruption is being used.

In lower elevations such as Cleveland and Lincoln County, DD accumulations average about 1850, which means the majority of second generation adults have emerged and egg hatch is about 65% complete. The need for additional insecticides targeting this generation are probably not necessary in most orchards, again the exception being in orchards with high populations.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: BMSB degree-day accumulations range from about 450 in higher elevations (≥2000 ft) to 675 DD at 1000 ft. Initial emergence of first-generation adults begins at about 750 DD, with insecticides recommended at 800 DD, which will occur in lower elevation orchards the latter part of next week (July 22-24). We are still several weeks away from emergence at elevations of 1500 ft or higher.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 28 Jul 6 Jul 13
Codling moth  2.5 2.5 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 36.0 33.5 22.0
Tufted apple bud moth 1.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 4.0 1.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 2.0 3.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 2.0 0.0 n/a
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.7 2.8 1.9
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 4.0 4.0 0.5
Spotted tentiform leafminer 27.0 13.0 4.0
Dogwood borer 27.0 39.0 27.0
Peachtree borer 18.0 14.0 17.0
Lesser peachtree borer 25.0 29.0 14.0
San Jose scale 2.5 0.0 5.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jun 28 Jul 6 Jul 13
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
1100 1220 1355
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
1571 1721 1885
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
1212 1362 1527

About degree-day models


July 6, 2021

With the exception of the second generation coding moth flight, overall insect activity remains low throughout the region.

Sprayer in orchardCodling moth degree-day accumulations since biofix range from about 1215 in Henderson County to almost 1700 in the Cleveland County area. The 1700 DD in lower elevations correlates with about 70% emergence of moths and 30% egg hatch, so this is an important time to be monitoring to determine the need for insecticide sprays. While in most situations a single insecticide application at about 1450 DD is sufficient for second-generation codling moth, two applications may be needed under higher population pressure. If traps are capturing more than 5 to 7 moths per week, an insecticide is recommended. Remember to use an insecticide with a different mode of action than was used against the first generation.

In Henderson County and higher elevations (≥2000 ft), the optimum timing for second-generation codling moth control (1400 to 1450 DD) is expected to occur in about 7 to 10 days.

It should be noted that it is rare for insecticides to be needed against second-generation codling when mating disruption is being used. A supplemental insecticide is recommended in mating disruption orchards only if the weekly cumulative moth capture exceeds 3 moths per trap.

Regarding oriental fruit moth, we are currently at the beginning of second and third generation egg hatch period in Henderson and Cleveland Counties, respectively. This typically coincides with relatively high moth captures in traps in orchards with high populations, such as at our research blocks at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station. However, populations remain low in most commercial orchards.

Brown marmorated stink bug nymphs are becoming common on pheromone traps, but we remain at least 10 to 14 days away from first generation adult emergence in Cleveland County, and even longer in higher elevation orchards.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 21 Jun 28 Jul 6
Codling moth  1.0 2.5 1.5
Oriental fruit moth 34.0 36.0 33.5
Tufted apple bud moth 4.0 1.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 2.0 0.0 4.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 21.0 2.0 3.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 2.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.8 1.7 2.8
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 2.0 4.0 4.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 20.0 27.0 13.0
Dogwood borer 6.0 27.0 39.0
Peachtree borer 6.0 18.0 14.0
Lesser peachtree borer 48.0 25.0 29.0
San Jose scale 0.0 2.5 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jun 21 Jun 28 Jul 6
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
927 1100 1220
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
1353 1571 1721
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
994 1212 1362

About degree-day models


Codling mothJune 29, 2021

Codling Moth:  Except for second-generation codling moth in lower elevation orchards (less than about 1200 ft elevation), insect activity remains low at this time. In the Cleveland/Lincoln County area about 1475 DD have accumulated since biofix, and now is the optimum timing for control of the second generation.

Remember that good resistance management practices call for using an insecticide with different modes of action against the first and second generations. The two most effective groups remain MOA group 28, the diamides (i.e., Altacor, Verdepryn, Voliam Felxi, Besiege), and MOA group 5, the Spinosyns (i.e., Delegate). Hence, if a diamide was used against the first generation, Delegate should be used against the second generation. Alternatively, if Delegate was used against the first generation then a diamide should be used against the second.

In Henderson County and other locations of similar elevation (≥2000 ft), only about 1050 DD have accumulated since codling moth biofix. These areas are still about two weeks from the need for an insecticide targeting the second generation.

Aphids, Leafhoppers and Mites:  With shoot growth foliage now hardening off, leafhoppers and green aphid populations are declining and insecticidal control should no longer be necessary. Also, if European red mites have not developed to threshold levels by the end of June, they usually will not be an issue the remainder of the year. However, with increased pyrethroid use for brown marmorated stink bug in recent years, it would be wise to continue to scout for this pest.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 14 Jun 21 Jun 28
Codling moth  2.0 1.0 2.5
Oriental fruit moth 17.0 34.0 36.0
Tufted apple bud moth 2.0 4.0 1.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 2.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 18.0 21.0 2.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 2.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.0 1.8 1.7
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 7.5 2.0 4.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 20.0 20.0 27.0
Dogwood borer 38.0 6.0 27.0
Peachtree borer 6.0 6.0 18.0
Lesser peachtree borer 52.0 48.0 25.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 2.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jun 14 Jun 21 Jun 28
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
792 927 1100
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
1183 1353 1571
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
824 994 1212

About degree-day models


June 22, 2021Codling moth trap

In elevations greater than about 2000 ft, such as Henderson, Haywood, and Wilkes Counties, this remains a time of relatively low insect activity. In Henderson County, codling moth degree day accumulations are about 940 DD, which coincides with almost 100% emergence of 1st generation adults and 80% of first generation egg hatch — it is highly unlikely that problems arise this late in the generation. The next critical time for codling moth will be about 1400 DD, which is not expected for at least two weeks.

At lower elevations (<1000 ft), such as Cleveland and Lincoln Counties, codling moth DDs average about 1325. Hence, second generation flight has begun. When this generation requires control, pheromone trap captures often increase at about 1400-1450 DD. The next 7 days will be an important time to consider insecticidal control in these lower elevations.

Most people have applied an insecticide for tufted apple bud moth; for those that have not, the window of opportunity will remain open for about another week.

While we are in the midst of second generation oriental fruit moth flight at elevations ≥2000 ft, populations have been very low in commercial orchards. OFM is usually not an issue until later in the season (Aug/Sept), but with pyrethroid use since the arrival of BMSB, populations have declined considerably.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 7 Jun 14 Jun 21
Codling moth  0.0 2.0 1.0
Oriental fruit moth 13.0 17.0 34.0
Tufted apple bud moth 14.0 2.0 4.0
Redbanded leafroller 1.0 0.0 2.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 35.0 18.0 21.0
Lesser appleworm 4.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.8 1.0 1.8
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 1.5 7.5 2.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 20.0 20.0
Dogwood borer 54.0 38.0 6.0
Peachtree borer 5.0 6.0 6.0
Lesser peachtree borer 51.0 52.0 48.0
San Jose scale 5.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jun 7 Jun 14 Jun 21
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
6321 792 927
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
988 1183 1353
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
629 824 994

About degree-day models


June 15, 2021

BMSB life stages (L to R): 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th instars; M and F adults

BMSB life stages (L to R): 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th instar nymphs; male and female adults

Codling moth model DD accumulations range from about 810 in Henderson County to about 1150 in Cleveland County. These values coincide with >95% emergence of first generation moths in Henderson County to completion of first generation flight in lower elevations. Except for those orchards with high populations and where there is little drop in pheromone trap captures, insecticidal control of this pest should not be necessary until about 1400 DD, or when second generation egg hatch begins.

Where tufted apple bud moth is a concern, the window of opportunity to apply an insecticide for season-long control remains open. For growers who have not applied an insecticide effective against TABM in the past 3 weeks, an application should be considered.

For those wondering about the status of brown marmorated stink bug, overwintered adults have completed emergence and are now laying eggs. Based on degree-model predictions, first generation egg laying is approximately 30%, 40% and 60% complete in Henderson, Wilkes and Cleveland Counties, respectively. Some of these eggs have hatched and small to medium sized nymphs are present. While most eggs are laid on wild hosts adjacent to orchards, egg laying can sometimes occur within orchards, especially on peaches. Also, migration of nymphs from wild hosts onto orchard trees adjacent to woods is also possible. Control of nymphs is generally easier than adults, and most neonicotinoids, including imidacloprid, will control these individuals. Emergence of the more damaging F1 adult generation is not expected for at least another 4 weeks (at less than 1000 ft elevation) to 8 weeks (at >2000 ft elevation).


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 1 Jun 7 Jun 14
Codling moth  3.5 0.0 2.0
Oriental fruit moth 6.0 13.0 17.0
Tufted apple bud moth 28.0 14.0 2.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 1.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 18.0 35.0 18.0
Lesser appleworm 9.0 4.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.5 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.7 1.8 1.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.5 1.5 7.5
Spotted tentiform leafminer 3.0 0.0 20.0
Dogwood borer 36.0 54.0 38.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 5.0 6.0
Lesser peachtree borer 48.0 51.0 52.0
San Jose scale 0.0 5.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jun 1 Jun 7 Jun 14
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
523 632 792
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
849 988 1183
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
490 629 824

About degree-day models


\Apple tree shoots damaged by potato leafhopperJune 8, 2021

Codling moth degree-day accumulations range from about 630 in Henderson County to approximately 960 DD in Cleveland County. At this stage codling moth remains a potential threat in Henderson County and locations with a similar or higher elevation (≥ 2000 ft), while in lower elevations (Cleveland/Lincoln Co) first generation flight is nearly complete.

In locations where tufted apple bud moth is a concern, the window of opportunity for control will be nearing an end in lower elevations, while in orchards above 2000 ft the window will remain open for at least 7 to 10 days.

Second generation oriental fruit moth flight is underway in most regions, but typical of this generation, numbers are very low.

Mid-June is prime time for green apple aphids, potato leafhopper, and European red mite, so monitoring for these pests is important at this time.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 24 Jun 1 Jun 7
Codling moth  5.5 3.5 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 7.0 6.0 13.0
Tufted apple bud moth 22.0 28.0 14.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 1.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 8.0 18.0 35.0
Lesser appleworm 12.0 9.0 4.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) set 0.5 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 2.0 1.7 1.8
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.5 0.5 1.5
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 3.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 21.0 21.0 54.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 5.0
Lesser peachtree borer 42.0 42.0 51.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 24 Jun 1 Jun 7
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
395 523 632
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
681 849 988
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
323 490 629

About degree-day models


Tree in an orchardJune 2, 2021

Codling moth degree-day accumulations range from about 530 in Henderson County to 825 in Cleveland/Lincoln Counties. Hence, it remains a potential threat in Henderson County and other locations of similar elevation (≥2,000 ft) with about 80% of first generation adults emerged and 30% of first generation eggs hatched. In lower elevations of Cleveland and Lincoln, first generation flight is nearly complete, with essentially all adults emerged from overwintering and almost 70% of eggs hatched. Once we pass about 650 DD, further insecticide sprays for codling moth are usually not necessary until second generation.

For those locations where tufted apple bud moth is a concern, the ideal timing for control generally occurs during the first two weeks of June. Biofix was curiously late this year, so based on DD accumulations (about 500 in Henderson County) it is still a bit early, but most insecticides should provide the residual control necessary for season-long control. Insecticides recommended include the group 28 MOA diamides such as Altacor, Exeril, or Verdepryn, the group 5 spinosyn Delegate, or Group 18 ecdysone agonist Intrepid.

For those using mating disruption for codling moth and who have not yet applied an insecticide, one of the above materials for TABM is an important spray.

Second generation oriental fruit moth flight has begun emergence in lower elevations, and is expected to begin in Henderson County next week. However, this flight is generally very low and rarely of concern.

Finally, expect leafhoppers, aphids and mites to continue to be observed with greater frequency, so monitoring for these secondary pests is important during the entire month of June.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 17 May 24 Jun 1
Codling moth  2.5 5.5 3.5
Oriental fruit moth 3.0 7.0 6.0
Tufted apple bud moth 10.0 22.0 28.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 8.0 18.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 12.0 9.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) set 0.5
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.0 2.0 1.7
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.5 0.5 0.5
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 3.0
Dogwood borer 10.0 21.0 36.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 3.0
Lesser peachtree borer 33.0 42.0 48.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 17 May 24 Jun 1
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
298 395 523
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
550 681 849
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
191 323 490

About degree-day models


Tractor in a fieldMay 25, 2021

As has been the case for the past several weeks, codling moth remains the greatest threat throughout the region, although low populations make the risk of damage low in many orchards. Now is also a good time to begin scouting for secondary pests, including European red mite, aphids and leafhoppers.

Codling moth: Degree-day accumulations range from about 400 in Henderson County to 650 in Lincoln/Cleveland County. In the lower elevation orchards (i.e., Lincoln/Cleveland), first generation flight should decline over the next week or so. In Henderson County (and orchards at a similar elevation of about 2000 ft), we will be entering the main flight and egg-laying period of the first generation. In orchards being managed as if full crop, the next 7 to 10 days will be an important time to monitor populations, or apply an insecticide if not monitoring.

In lower elevations where tufted apple bud moth (TABM) is a concern, an insecticide applied anytime during the next two weeks is good timing. In Henderson County, the window for control of TABM will not begin for another 7 to 14 days.

Secondary Pests:  While it may seem early for European red mite, in orchards with high populations it is not unusual for mites to be observed by late May. We are also on the early side of potato leafhopper and green apple aphids, but a few leafhoppers, although too low to justify treating, were observed in our plots yesterday. Finally, in our research plots where rosy apple aphid (RAA) was not controlled early in the spring, aphids are continuing to spread. If RAA-curled leaves are observed in orchards, these leaves should be checked for the presence of live aphids. As temperatures warm, RAA populations will decline.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 10 May 17 May 24
Codling moth  4.5 2.5 5.5
Oriental fruit moth 11.5 3.0 7.0
Tufted apple bud moth 2.0 10.0 22.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 8.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 12.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) set
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.0 2.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 1.0 0.5 0.5
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 1.0 10.0 21.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 29.0 33.0 42.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 10 May 17 May 24
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
243 298 395
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
467 550 681
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
108 191 323

About degree-day models


May 18, 2021Periodical cicada on apple tree

Codling moth remains the primary concern across the region, with degree-day accumulations since biofix ranging from about 300 DD in Henderson County to about 520 in the Cleveland/Lincoln County area. As highlighted in last week’s update, insecticide recommendations vary depending on how an orchard is being managed – i.e., a full crop versus one that is questionable as to whether or not to manage.

In higher elevations (Henderson, Haywood, Wilkes) being managed as a full crop, insecticidal control of codling moth is recommended an upcoming spray. In situations with a low codling moth population and which have not yet been sprayed for codling moth, an application should be made at about 350 DD, which is later this week in these locations. In lower elevations where DD accumulations are about 520, it should be remembered that an application between 500 and 650 DD will coincide the optimum timing for control of tufted apple bud moth. While first generation codling moth can remain a concern up to about 900 DD, in most situations insecticides are not needed beyond 600 and 650 DD.

In orchards with a low crop load that do not justify a normal spray program, it would be wise to make a single insecticide application between 500 and 650 DD to target both codling moth and TABM.

Brood X of 17-year Cicada: There have been numerous stories in the press about emergence of Brood X of the 17-year cicada. Within our region, this brood is expected to be restricted to northeast Georgia and far western NC in Cherokee County, and should not be a concern for growers in other areas. Female cicadas lay eggs with a sharp ovipositor in the limbs of trees, and in large numbers they can do considerable damage to fruit trees. Most pyrethroids and neonicotinoids will control cicadas, but frequency of application will vary with the intensity of populations.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 3 May 10 May 17
Codling moth  15.5 4.5 2.5
Oriental fruit moth 11.5 11.5 3.0
Tufted apple bud moth 5.0 2.0 10.0
Redbanded leafroller 4.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.5 1.0 0.5
Spotted tentiform leafminer 2.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 1.0 10.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 42.0 29.0 33.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 3 May 10 May 17
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
177 243 298
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
372 467 550
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
32 108 191

About degree-day models


May 11, 2021

Spraying apple orchardCodling Moth

We have entered a period where the main focus of insect control throughout the region is the codling moth, and it will remain that way for the next several weeks. Degree-day accumulations since biofix range from about 240 in Henderson County to 420 in the Lincoln/Cleveland County region. Under moderate to high codling moth populations, an initial application is recommended at 250 DD, which coincides with initial egg hatch. However, populations are considerably lower in the vast majority of commercial orchards, and delaying an application until approximately 350 DD will allow growers to reduce the number of applications targeting the first generation without risking damage. The last spray targeting first generation codling moth is generally between 600 to 650 DD. Pheromone trapping is an important tool to verify the existence of low populations. The forecast calls for below normal temperatures for the next week, so few degree-days will be accumulating during this time.

In those orchards that have employed mating disruption for codling moth and OFM, especially for multiple years, only one insecticide application for the first generation is recommended. The timing of this application should be between 500 and 650 DD, which also coincides with the optimum time for control of the tufted apple bud moth.

Insecticide Use in Orchards with Reduced Crops 

There have been questions about reduced insecticide programs in orchards with crop losses due to the freeze. This is a difficult question, and the answer depends on the extent of crop loss, the specific pest, and the historical insect pressure in the orchard. Certain insects, such as the codling moth and apple maggot, use chemical cues given off by fruit to help locate their hosts, so those orchards with few fruit will be less attractive than those with full crops. Certain other pests, such as scales, mites, aphids and leafhoppers, do not rely on these same chemical cues, and populations will infest trees regardless of fruit load.

Severe Crop Loss:  The easiest decision is in those orchards with no crop, or so few fruit that it is not economically viable to harvest. Under this scenario, insecticide use should be sparse and used only against those few insects that can do long-term damage to the health of the tree, or reduce return bloom next year. In orchards with a history of San Jose scale problems, an insecticide should be considered, because it can take a couple of years to clean up a large scale population. However, if scales have not been an issue for several years, which is best estimated by the absence of infested fruit at harvest, an insecticide is probably not necessary. Injury inflicted by high European red mite populations can reduce fruit set the following year, so a miticide should be considered if populations develop to high numbers – i.e., bronzing is evident. However, with a reduced insecticide program, ERM should be less of problem compared to normal circumstances. Another pest to consider controlling is potato leafhopper, especially on young trees. Leafhoppers prefer to feed on new shoot growth and can stunt growth when populations are allowed to build to high numbers.

Questionable Crop Load:  This is the most difficult situation, where the crop load is low, but perhaps not so low that you are willing to walk away from the orchard. Under this scenario the cost of a full management program is not justified. The only practical way to reduce insect control costs are to reduce the number of applications; there are no “less expensive insecticides” that provide acceptable levels of control, otherwise they would be recommended and used under normal circumstances. Clearly, there is risk associated with reducing the number of insecticide applications. The best way to minimize that risk is to scout orchards for pest problems on a regular basis, including the use of pheromone traps for codling moth and oriental fruit moth. I am familiar with low-pest population orchards in previous years that have not been sprayed with an insecticide for over two months from early June to mid August. So it is possible to minimize insecticide use with without incurring serious damage. Below are timings considered most critical for insecticide applications if minimizing cost inputs.

2nd to 3rd Cover: An insecticide effective against both codling moth and tufted apple bud moth applied between 500 and 600 codling moth DD.

Mid-June:  If leafhoppers are causing damage, consider an insecticide that is also has some activity against oriental fruit moth.

5th to 6th Cover: An insecticide effective against codling moth at about 1450 DD to target the second generation if moth captures in pheromone traps exceed 7 to 10 per week.

Mid-August to Early September:  Depending on the timing of emergence of 1st-generation brown marmorated stink bug adults, one or two pyrethroid applications to minimize damage.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 26 May 3 May 10
Codling moth  5.5 15.5 4.5
Oriental fruit moth 4.0 11.5 11.5
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 5.0 2.0
Redbanded leafroller 12.0 4.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.5 1.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 2.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0 1.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 4.0 42.0 29.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 26 May 3 May 10
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
86 177 243
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
251 372 467
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 30)
32 108

About degree-day models


May 4, 2021San Jose scale trap

With the uncertainty of fruit loads and extended bloom period, many growers are just now applying a petal fall spray. Recommendations for petal fall were outlined in the April 15 update, with an emphasis on control of plum curculio.

Codling Moth:  In lower elevation orchards such as Lincoln and Cleveland Counties, codling moth degree-day accumulations have increased to 300, while in Henderson County they are only about 180 DD. First egg hatch begins at about 250 in orchards with moderate to high populations. However, in orchards with low populations, which includes most commercial orchards, initial applications can be made at about 350 DD. In Henderson County, 250 and 350 DD are predicted to occur on May 9 and 15, respectively. In Lincoln county 350 DD is predicted for later this week.

San Jose Scale: Another insect on the radar at this time is San Jose scale. Targeting first generation crawlers at first or second cover has become a popular strategy in recent years, and has worked well for those employing this tactic. Two commonly used and excellent materials are Esteem and Centaur, and for resistance management it would good to alternate these materials yearly. Also, studies last year showed that Assail at 6 oz/A also provided good control of a large SJS population.

The reason for the recommended timing of applications at 1st or 2nd cover is illustrated in the figure below that shows population trends of a large SJS population in apples in 2015. Crawlers began to emerge in mid-May, which is the optimum timing of applications in Henderson County. In lower elevations (Cleveland County), applications this week or next would be ideal.

Chart of San Jose scale population trends in 2015


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 19 Apr 26 May 3
Codling moth  7.5 5.5 15.5
Oriental fruit moth 20.0 4.0 11.5
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 5.0
Redbanded leafroller 14.0 12.0 4.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 0.5
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 2.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 3.0 4.0 42.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 19 Apr 26 May 3
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
67 86 177
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
216 251 372
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix has not been established)

About degree-day models


April 27, 2021

Hummingbird moth


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 12 Apr 19 Apr 26
Codling moth  2.0 7.5 5.5
Oriental fruit moth 5-.0 20.0 4.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 7.0 14.0 12.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 1.0 3.0 4.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 12 Apr 19 Apr 26
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
46 67 86
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
152 216 251
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix has not been established)

About degree-day models


April 20, 2021

Oriental fruit moths in trapCool Weather Will Suppress Insect Activity

Last week’s pest update provided options for insecticide applications at petal fall, emphasizing the importance of plum curculio control at this time, as well as oriental fruit moth in those orchards not using mating disruption. Highs for the remainder of this week are predicted to be in the 50s and 60s, and temperatures will not return to the 70s until next Monday. If petal fall insecticide sprays have not yet been applied, it would be advantageous to wait until early next week when pest activity again picks up to make applications.

Our codling moth biofix date for Henderson County was 10 April, and in Cleveland County it was estimated at 6 April. Hence, we are still at least 10 to 14 days and possibly longer before anticipated first sprays for first generation codling moth.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 5 Apr 12 Apr 19
Codling moth  0.0 2.0 7.5
Oriental fruit moth 12.0 50.0 20.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 9.0 7.0 14.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 4.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 0.0 1.0 3.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 5 Apr 12 Apr 19
Codling moth (Biofix: April 10)
46 67
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
56 152 216
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix has not been established)

About degree-day models


April 15, 2021Apple blooms at edge of orchard

Petal Fall Spray Options

With petal fall spray imminent in most locations, insecticide options will depend on what was applied before bloom and whether or not OFM mating disruption is being used. Another consideration is the level of bee activity in an orchard. For insecticides toxic to bees, which include many recommended at petal fall, it is important that bees are removed from orchards before sprays are applied.

The key insect pests to target at petal fall include plum curculio, oriental fruit moth and rosy apple aphid. Among these insects, the plum curculio presents the greatest threat, because petal fall is essentially the only time that it can be effectively controlled, while other options are available for OFM and rosy apple aphid.

Plum Curculio: This remains one of the most common causes of insect damage to apples in this region, and effective control is highly correlated with petal fall sprays. Although the severity of damage varies considerably among orchards, plum curculio is ubiquitous and can cause damage in virtually every orchard. In orchards with a history of problems, sprays should be made as quickly after petal fall as possible. In orchards where damage is historically low, there is usually a longer buffer period and sprays can be slightly delayed. However, 1st Cover is often too long to wait.

Rosy Apple Aphid:  Rosy apple aphid is a sporadic pest, but it can be difficult to monitor, and control with curative applications of insecticides can be difficult. Most neonicotinoids and closely related insecticides are effective against RAA, and effective control can be achieved before bloom at Pink, or after bloom at petal fall.

Oriental Fruit Moth:  Biofix at the research station in Henderson County was set on 27 March (codling moth biofix was 9 April). In orchards using mating disruption for OFM, insecticidal control of the first generation is not necessary, so focus on plum curculio and rosy apple aphid if relevant. However, where mating disruption is not used, an insecticide effective against this pest is recommended to control the first generation.

Insecticide Options:  Because of the importance of plum curculio, only those insecticides with activity against this pest are recommended at petal fall.

Relative Efficacy Chart for Petal Fall Insecticide Options

(― = No activity; P = poor; F= Fair; G = Good, E = excellent)
Insecticide Plum curculio OFM RAA Toxicity to bees
Actara E F E Highly toxic
Assail F G E Mod. toxic
Avaunt G G Mod. toxic
Imidan E E Mod. toxic
Verdepryn G E Highly toxic
Voliam Flexi* E E E Highly toxic
*Voliam Flexi is a premix that includes thiamethoxam (a.i. in Actara) and chlorantraniliprole (a.i. in Altacor).

Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2021 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 30 Apr 5 Apr 12
Codling moth  setup 0.0 2.0
Oriental fruit moth 17.5 12.0 50.0
Tufted apple bud moth setup 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 10.0 9.0 7.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 4.0 0.0
Dogwood borer setup 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer setup 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer setup 0.0 1.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2021 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Mar 30 Apr 5 Apr 12
Codling moth (Biofix: April 9)
46
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 27)
27 56 152
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix has not been established)

About degree-day models