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WNC Orchard Insect Populations

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October 30, 2023

Apple orchard on research stationWith insect populations at or approaching zero, this will be the last date that trap counts are posted for 2023. See you next April, when updates will resume!


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Oct 16 Oct 23 Oct 30
Codling moth  0.0 0.0 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 3.0 1.0 0.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 0.4 0.1 n/a
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 1.3 0.0 0.3
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Oct 16 Oct 23 Oct 30
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 3164 3197 3270
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 4237 4293 4395
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 3884 3940 4042

About degree-day models


2023 Pest Population Trends

Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends


PREVIOUS REPORTS

October 23, 2023

Brown marmorated stink bug monitoring trap


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Oct 9 Oct 16 Oct 23
Codling moth  0.0 0.0 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 5.5 3.0 1.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.4 0.4 0.1
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 4.7 1.3 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
San Jose scale 2.5 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Oct 9 Oct 16 Oct 23
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 3111 3164 3197
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 4156 4237 4293
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 3803 3884 3940

About degree-day models


October 16, 2023

Harvesting apples at Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Oct 2 Oct 9 Oct 16
Codling moth  0.5 0.0 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 27.0 5.5 3.0
Tufted apple bud moth 7.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 2.5 1.4 0.4
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 13.0 4.7 1.3
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 2.0 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 1.5 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 0.5 0.0 0.0
San Jose scale 5.0 2.5 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Oct 2 Oct 9 Oct 16
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 3047 3111 3164
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 4067 4156 4237
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 3713 3803 3884

About degree-day models


October 9, 2023

View of Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 25 Oct 2 Oct 9
Codling moth  0.5 0.5 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 56.5 27.0 5.5
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 7.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 1.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 2.4 2.5 1.4
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 3.7 13.0 4.7
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 2.0 2.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 0.5 1.5 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 0.0 0.5 0.0
San Jose scale 0.0 5.0 2.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Sep 25 Oct 2 Oct 9
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 2936 3047 3111
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 3921 4067 4156
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 3568 3713 3803

About degree-day models


October 2, 2023

Ladder in apple orchard


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 18 Sep 25 Oct 2
Codling moth  0.0 0.5 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 52.0 56.5 27.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 7.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 1.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.9 2.4 2.5
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 13.0 3.7 13.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 3.0 2.0 2.0
Peachtree borer 1.0 0.5 1.5
Lesser peachtree borer 0.5 0.0 0.5
San Jose scale 55.0 0.0 5.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Sep 18 Sep 25 Oct 2
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 2848 2936 3047
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 3798 3921 4067
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 3445 3568 3713

About degree-day models


September 25, 2023

Trap in apple orchard


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 11 Sep 18 Sep 25
Codling moth  0.0 0.0 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 62.0 52.0 56.5
Tufted apple bud moth 2.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 4.0 0.0 1.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.3 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 3.5 1.9 2.4
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 12.0 13.0 3.7
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 29.0 3.0 2.0
Peachtree borer 0.5 1.0 0.5
Lesser peachtree borer 0.5 0.5 0.0
San Jose scale 75.0 55.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Sep 11 Sep 18 Sep 25
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 2736 2848 2936
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 3650 3798 3921
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 3297 3445 3568

About degree-day models


September 18, 2023

Brown marmorated stink bug trap in orchard


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 5 Sep 11 Sep 18
Codling moth  1.0 0.0 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 57.0 62.0 52.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 2.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 4.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 1.0 0.3 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.5 3.5 1.9
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 8.3 12.0 13.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 34.0 29.0 3.0
Peachtree borer 4.5 0.5 1.0
Lesser peachtree borer 4.5 0.5 0.5
San Jose scale 162.5 75.0 55.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Sep 5 Sep 11 Sep 18
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 2618 2736 2848
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 3503 3650 3798
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 3150 3297 3445

About degree-day models


September 11, 2023

Apple tree with a pest trap


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 28 Sep 5 Sep 11
Codling moth  0.0 1.0 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 48.0 57.0 62.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 2.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 1.0 0.0 4.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 3.7 1.0 0.3
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 2.1 1.5 3.5
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 7.0 8.3 12.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 29.0 34.0 29.0
Peachtree borer 4.5 4.5 0.5
Lesser peachtree borer 5.5 4.5 0.5
San Jose scale 2.5 162.5 75.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Aug 28 Sep 5 Sep 11
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 2450 2618 2736
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 3295 3503 3650
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 2942 3150 3297

About degree-day models


September 7, 2023

With apple harvest fully underway, this will be the last insect update of 2023.

Brown marmorated stink bug trapDuring the past 7 to 8 years, brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) has been the major late-season insect pest of apples. While increased use of pyrethroid insecticides in August and September to control BMSB has been moderately successful in minimizing damage to apples, it has led to problems with some secondary pests. Specifically, pyrethroids have contributed to increased populations of European red mite and San Jose scale.

BMSB populations this year are the lowest we have observed in August and September for at least the last 5 years. Below is a figure showing weekly captures of BMSB in pheromone traps since 2019. Trends show a definite decline in populations during the past two years. Along with this decline in 2022 and this year, it appears that overall damage is also decreasing. Damage to apples was very high in 2021, when populations were at their highest. In contrast, damage in commercial orchards last year (2022) was low, a year when BMSB populations were considerably lower than in previous years. Although we still have several weeks to go before the full picture is drawn for 2023, early assessments suggest overall low damage up to this point in time.

Whether or not declining BMSB populations are a trend that will continue into future years is obviously unknown at this time. But hopefully they are on a permanent decline in NC, and we can return to a less aggressive pesticide program that will be more compatible with biological control of European red mites and San Jose scale.Graph showing brown marmorated stink bug populations, 2019 to 2023


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 21 Aug 28 Sep 5
Codling moth  0.5 0.0 1.0
Oriental fruit moth 31.5 48.0 57.0
Tufted apple bud moth 2.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 2.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 1.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 3.7 3.7 1.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.9 2.1 1.5
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 3.0 7.0 8.3
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 29.0 29.0 34.0
Peachtree borer 6.5 4.5 4.5
Lesser peachtree borer 4.0 5.5 4.5
San Jose scale 37.5 2.5 162.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Aug 21 Aug 28 Sep 5
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 2249 2450 2618
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 3054 3295 3503
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 2701 2942 3150

About degree-day models


August 31, 2023

Spider web and traps in apple orchard


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 14 Aug 21 Aug 28
Codling moth  1.0 0.5 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 10.5 31.5 48.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 2.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 2.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 1.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 1.7 3.7 3.7
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.7 1.9 2.1
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 3.0 7.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 13.0 29.0 29.0
Peachtree borer 4.0 6.5 4.5
Lesser peachtree borer 2.5 4.0 5.5
San Jose scale 0.0 37.5 2.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Aug 14 Aug 21 Aug 28
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 2098 2249 2450
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 2867 3054 3295
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 2514 2701 2942

About degree-day models


August 22, 2023

Brown marmorated stink bug adultEmergence of first generation adults of the brown marmorated stink bug ranges from about 15% (Henderson County) to 67% (Cleveland County) completion in the region. Degree-day accumulations as of 22 August were 810, 1071 and 826 in Henderson, Cleveland and Wilkes Counties. BMSB will be the main focus for the next several weeks.

Oriental fruit moth pheromone trap captures continue to increase in our research plots at the MHCREC. Late-season OFM populations are not unexpected when pyrethroids are not being used for BMSB. Where pyrethroids are being used for BMSB and/or where mating disruption is used, OFM should not be a problem.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 8 Aug 14 Aug 21
Codling moth  1.0 1.0 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 11.0 10.5 31.5
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 2.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 2.0 0.0 2.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 1.7 3.7
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.1 1.8 1.9
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.7 0.0 3.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 20.0 13.0 29.0
Peachtree borer 3.5 4.0 6.5
Lesser peachtree borer 0.0 2.5 4.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 37.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Aug 7 Aug 14 Aug 21
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 1938 2098 2249
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 2673 2867 3054
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 2320 2514 2701

About degree-day models


August 15, 2023

Brown marmorated stink bug immatures on appleBased on the degree-day model, emergence of the brown marmorated stink bug is underway in most areas, with DD accumulations at 755 in Henderson County, 771 in Wilkes County, and 1,000 in Cleveland County, which is equivalent to emergence of about 5%, 8% and 55% of first generation adults, respectively. Those varieties that will be harvested after September 1 are most vulnerable to damage. Refer to the July 26 pest update for BMSB insecticide recommendations.

In those few orchards where there is still concern about codling moth or oriental fruit moth, pyrethroid applications for BMSB should provide good control of OFM, but it may not be sufficient for codling moth. If codling moth has been an issue, consider using Besiege (21-day PHI), or tank mixing either Altacor (5-day PHI) or Delegate (7-day PHI) with a pyrethroid that has a shorter PHI.

The first captures of apple maggot on traps near our abandoned orchard site occurred this week. Pyrethroids applied for BSMB will also control apple maggot.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 1 Aug 8 Aug 14
Codling moth  4.5 1.0 1.0
Oriental fruit moth 13.5 11.0 10.5
Tufted apple bud moth 1.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 2.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 1.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 1.7
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.7 1.1 1.8
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 1.0 0.7 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 11.0 20.0 13.0
Peachtree borer 7.5 3.5 4.0
Lesser peachtree borer 2.5 0.0 2.5
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Aug 1 Aug 7 Aug 14
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 1802 1938 2098
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 2506 2673 2867
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 2153 2320 2514

About degree-day models


August 8, 2023

Apple orchardWe are approaching that time of the year when codling moth and oriental fruit moth (OFM) populations become less important, and when the risk of damage by brown marmorated stink bug increases.

Codling moth has or is near completion of the 2nd generation throughout the region, and OFM has completed its third generation. While there is time for another generation of each insect, the risk of damage from hereon is low in those orchards that have not experienced problems up to this point in time. In those orchards that have experienced infested fruit, the risk is likely to remain into September.

Overlapping generations of OFM can lead to increased populations in August and September. In the past this was often avoided with an application of sprayable OFM pheromone (CheckMate OFM-F) in mid August and early September, but increased use of pyrethroids for BMSB (see below) has led to suppressed late-season OFM in recent years.

Brown marmorated stink bug DD accumulations in Cleveland, Wilkes and Henderson County average about 900, 708, and 694, respectively. Based on the model predicting emergence of F1 adults, emergence is about 35-40% in Cleveland County, so risk for damage is high. However, BMSB populations have been relatively low this year, so the risk factor is likely lower.

Initial emergence of F1 adults occurs at about 750 DD, which is predicted to be early next week in Henderson and Wilkes Counties.

Finally, remember that the Mountain Hort Field Day is this Thursday, August 10, at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center in Mills River. This field day includes several apple presentations in the research orchards as well as talks on tomatoes, vegetables, specialty crops, and alternative crops. More details are in the MHCREC announcement.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
July 24 Aug 1 Aug 8
Codling moth  1.0 4.5 1.0
Oriental fruit moth 18.0 13.5 11.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 1.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 2.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 1.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.9 1.7 1.1
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 1.0 0.7
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 17.0 11.0 20.0
Peachtree borer 5.5 7.5 3.5
Lesser peachtree borer 3.0 2.5 0.0
San Jose scale 15.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
July 24 Aug 1 Aug 7
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 1605 1802 1938
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 2275 2506 2673
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 1922 2153 2320

About degree-day models


August 3, 2023

Pest trap on apple treesI apologize for the delayed update this week, but travel and field work has set us behind. The pest complex of greatest importance remains the internal lepidopteran complex (codling moth and oriental fruit moth) and brown marmorated stink bug, the latter of greatest importance in lower elevations.

Second generation codling moth has completed egg laying in lower elevation areas, and is more than halfway complete in higher elevations (e.g., ≥2000 ft). Unless codling moth damage exists in orchards, the potential for new damage from this point on is minimal.

We are approaching that time when 3rd and 4th generations of OFM are beginning to overlap, which contributes to increasing populations later in the year. If pheromone trap captures increase to greater than 7 to 10 moths/trap, an insecticide spray should be considered. In those areas where BMSB is emerging and pyrethroids will be sprayed, OFM will also be controlled.

First generation BMSB adult emergence is underway in lower elevation orchards (about 1000 ft and lower). In Cleveland County, 821 DD have accumulated since biofix, which is equivalent to emergence of about 25% of the adult population. DD accumulations are considerably behind in Henderson (641 DD) and Wilkes Counties (655 DD), and adult emergence is not expected for another 10 to 14 days. However, as mentioned in last week’s update, Granny Smith apples have been shown to be highly attractive to BMSB beginning in late July to early August, so an insecticide application should be considered on that cultivar.

Finally, remember that the Mountain Hort Field Day is on Thursday, August 10, at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center in Mills River. This field day includes several apple presentations in the research orchards as well as talks on tomatoes, vegetables, specialty crops, and alternative crops. More details are in the MHCREC announcement.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
July 17 July 24 Aug 1
Codling moth  1.0 1.0 4.5
Oriental fruit moth 15.5 18.0 13.5
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 1.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 1.0 0.0 1.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.9 1.7
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 1.3 0.0 1.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 20.0 17.0 11.0
Peachtree borer 7.5 5.5 7.5
Lesser peachtree borer 4.0 3.0 2.5
San Jose scale 225.0 15.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
July 17 July 24 Aug 1
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 1451 1605 1802
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 2086 2275 2506
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 1733 1922 2153

About degree-day models


July 26, 2023

Brown marmorated stink bug trapEgg hatch of the second and third generation of codling moth and oriental fruit moth are about 25% complete, respectively, in Henderson County. In Cleveland County, second generation codling moth egg hatch is near completion, and fourth generation OFM egg hatch is just beginning. While populations have been low throughout the season throughout the area, pheromone trap captures in individual orchards should be the basis of management decisions.

Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB): Last week’s BMSB degree-day accumulation calculations contained an error, with more DD actually accumulating than reported. However, population development is still behind that of previous years. BMSB DD accumulations in Henderson, Wilkes and Cleveland Counties is currently 557, 569 and 721 DD, respectively; at this time last year DD accumulations were 690 in Henderson, 700 in Wilkes, and 891 in Cleveland Counties. Initial emergence of first generation adults is expected later this week in Cleveland County and similar elevations, while emergence is not expected for at least two to three weeks in higher elevations (Henderson and Wilkes).

Last week a total of 76 BMSB pheromone traps were set in commercial orchards in Henderson County, and across all traps an average of 1.9 adults per trap were captured. While this is not a large number, BMSB is known to be highly attractive to Granny Smith apples in late July to early August. Hence, a preventive spray targeting BMSB should be considered on Granny Smith at this time. Below are insecticides recommended for BMSB, their relative effectiveness, and limits on use:

Insecticides recommended for brown marmorated stink bug on apples.
Insecticide PHI (d) Relative Efficacy (1=poor, 5=excellent) Rate/A Max per season
PYRETHROIDS:
Baythroid (beta cyfulthrin) 7 4 2.4 fl oz 2.8 fl oz
Brigade (bifenthrin*) 14 5 9.6 fl oz 28.8 fl oz
Danitol (fenpropathrin) 14 4 20 fl oz 42.6 fl oz
Karate/Warrior (lambda-cyhalothrin) 21 4 2.5 fl oz 12.8 fl oz
Mustang Maxx (zeta-cypermethrin) 14 4 4.0 fl oz 24.0 fl oz
Proaxis (gamma-cyhalothrin) 21 4 5.1 fl oz 20.8 fl oz
Tombstone (cyfluthrin) 7 4 2.4 fl oz 12.8 fl oz
NEONICOTINOIDS:
Actara (thiamethoxam) 35 4 4.5 oz 16.5 oz
Belay (chlothianidin) 7 4 6.0 fl oz 12.0 fl oz
PREMIXES:
Besiege (chlorantraniliprole + lambda-cyhalothrin) 21 4 10.0 fl oz 31.0 fl oz
Endigo (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam) 35 4 6.0 fl oz 28.0 fl oz
Leverage (imidacloprid + beta-cyfluthrin) 7 4 2.8 fl oz 2.8 fl oz
Voliam Flexi (chlorantraniliprole + thiamethoxam) 35 4 6.0 oz 16.0 oz
*Brigade is the only bifenthrin product with apple on the label.

***

Remember that the Mountain Hort Field Day is on Thursday, August 10, at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center in Mills River. This field day includes several apple presentations in the research orchards as well as talks on tomatoes, vegetables, specialty crops, and alternative crops. More details are in the MHCREC announcement.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
July 10 July 17 July 24
Codling moth  2.5 1.0 1.0
Oriental fruit moth 16.0 15.5 18.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 2.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 3.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 5.0 1.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.3 1.3 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 25.0 20.0 17.0
Peachtree borer 13.0 7.5 5.5
Lesser peachtree borer 3.5 4.0 3.0
San Jose scale 0.0 225.0 15.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
July 10 July 17 July 24
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 1282 1451 1605
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 1882 2086 2275
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 1529 1733 1922

About degree-day models


July 17, 2023

Brown marmorated stink bug adultThe pest situation is similar to last week, with second generation codling moth egg hatch about 15% complete in Henderson County, and 65% complete in Cleveland County. In those orchards that have low populations and have not experienced damage to date, a single application at this time should be sufficient. In lower elevation orchards in Cleveland County, it is unlikely that additional insecticides will be necessary against codling moth in low population orchards. Insecticides applied for second-generation codling moth should also provide control of third generation OFM, which is in the early stages of laying eggs in Henderson County, and nearly complete in Cleveland County.

Degree-day accumulations for brown marmorated stink bug are considerably behind past years. First generation adults, which cause the majority of damage, begin to emerge at about 750 DD. As of July 18, BMSB DD accumulations in Henderson and Cleveland County were only 444 and 578, compared to 625 and 812 at this time last year, respectively. In addition, BMSB captures in pheromone traps have also been low this year, with a cumulative total catch of only 6 adults per trap at the MHCREC in Mills River, compared to 19.5 and 28.0 on the same date in 2021 and 2022, respectively.

***

Remember that the Mountain Hort Field Day is on Thursday, August 10, at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center in Mills River. This field day includes several apple presentations in the research orchards as well as talks on tomatoes, vegetables, specialty crops, and alternative crops. More details are in the MHCREC announcement.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
July 3 July 10 July 17
Codling moth  0.5 2.5 1.0
Oriental fruit moth 16.0 16.0 15.5
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 2.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 1.0 3.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 1.0 5.0 1.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.3 0.3 1.3
Spotted tentiform leafminer 1.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 14.0 25.0 20.0
Peachtree borer 12.0 13.0 7.5
Lesser peachtree borer 4.0 3.5 4.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 225.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
July 3 July 10 July 17
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 1107 1282 1451
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 1672 1882 2086
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 1318 1529 1733

About degree-day models


July 11, 2023

Sprayer in apple orchardCodling moth populations remain low in the vast majority of orchards, and under those conditions a single insecticide targeting the second generation is recommended at about 1450 DD. Cumulative DD in Henderson County average about 1300 DD as of July 11, and based on the forecast, 1450 will occur on July 15, so we are in that window to consider making an application. In Cleveland County DD accumulations are currently at about 1668, which coincides with 31% hatch of second generation eggs. If an insecticide has not been made against the second generation in the past two weeks in lower elevations, one should be applied as soon as possible. It should be noted that for those using pheromone traps to monitor moths, the need for insecticides should be based on captures in pheromone traps. If no moths are captured, there is obviously no need for insecticides. However, do not make the assumption that populations do not require control if traps are not being used.

As mentioned last week, it is doubtful that insecticidal control is needed in orchards using mating disruption.

See last week’s update regarding recommended insecticides and rotations for codling moth control.

Third generation oriental fruit moth is beginning to emerge and lay eggs in Henderson County and similar elevations, but populations of this pest have also been low. However, insecticides applied for codling moth will also control OFM.

European red mites have been quite abundant this year, but it is doubtful that populations will develop to problematic levels in orchards where they have not yet appeared. We have recently sampled in several orchards that have had problems, but populations have already declined in those orchards. Hence, be sure to scout orchards for mites before making miticide applications.

Brown marmorated stink bug populations are considerably delayed compared to previous years, with DD accumulations in Cleveland County at only 580 DD as of July 11. First generation adults begin to emerge at about 750 DD, so we are still 10 to 14 days away from initial emergence in Cleveland County, and probably a month away in Henderson and Wilkes Counties.

Finally, remember that the Mountain Hort Field Day is on Thursday, August 10, at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center in Mills River. This field day includes several apple presentations in the research orchards as well as talks on tomatoes, vegetables, specialty crops, and alternative crops. More details are in the MHCREC announcement.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
June 26 July 3 July 10
Codling moth  0.0 0.5 2.5
Oriental fruit moth 15.0 16.0 16.0
Tufted apple bud moth 1.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 2.0 0.0 2.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 1.0 1.0 3.0
Lesser appleworm 1.0 1.0 5.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.3 0.3
Spotted tentiform leafminer 1.0 1.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 15.0 14.0 25.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 12.0 13.0
Lesser peachtree borer 0.0 4.0 3.5
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
June 26 July 3 July 10
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 948 1107 1282
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 1478 1672 1882
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 1124 1318 1529

About degree-day models


July 3, 2023

Leaf with European red mitesIn lower elevation orchards (e.g., Cleveland County and nearby locations), second generation codling moth is at about 12% egg hatch. This coincides with timing of insecticide applications in orchards with low populations and/or very little damage from the first generation. Hence, an insecticide targeting this generation should be considered this week if one has not been recently applied. In those orchards using mating disruption, it is highly unlikely that insecticides are necessary against codling moth.

In higher elevations, such as Henderson County, second generation adults are just beginning to emerge. Based on the forecast, the optimum timing is predicted for about 10-14 days. Again, it is highly unlikely that insecticidal control will be necessary in orchards using mating disruption, but moth capture in pheromone traps should be used as a tool to make this decision.

Resistance Management:  When choosing an insecticide to apply for second generation codling moth, it is important to use a product with a different mode of action than was used during the first generation. The two major classes of insecticides recommended for codling moth are the diamides (Altacor, Exirel, and Verdepryn) and spinosyns (Delegate). Hence, if one of the diamides was used against the first generation, Delegate should be targeted for the second generation. Conversely, if Delegate was used for first generation control, one the diamides should be considered against the second generation. It should be noted that all of these insecticides are also highly effective against oriental fruit moth, the third generation of which is just beginning to emerge in lower elevation orchards.

European red mites continue to be a challenge for many growers, even in some orchards where preventive control was applied earlier in the season. In orchards with relatively high populations, Acramite provides the best knockdown activity. Other products that provide good activity against moderate populations densities (e.g., <10 mites/leaf) include Portal, Nexter, Kanemite and Nealta.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
June 19 June 26 July 3
Codling moth  0.5 0.0 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 17.5 15.0 16.0
Tufted apple bud moth 1.0 1.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 2.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 2.0 1.0 1.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 1.0 1.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.3 0.0 0.3
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 1.0 1.0
Dogwood borer 19.0 15.0 14.0
Peachtree borer 2.0 0.0 12.0
Lesser peachtree borer 1.0 0.0 4.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
June 19 June 26 July 3
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 829 948 1107
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 1323 1478 1672
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 970 1124 1318

About degree-day models


June 27, 2023

Green apple aphidsThroughout the region, we are still in the period when the threat of damage by direct pests, including codling moth, oriental fruit moth, and tufted apple bud moth, is very low. Consequently, this is when the need for insecticides is at its lowest. In most situations, insecticides will only be needed for indirect pests that have exceeded threshold levels, and this includes green apple aphids, leafhoppers, European red mite and Japanese beetles. For the most part, aphids and leafhoppers have been very low thus far, while European red mite pressure has been fairly high. With temperatures beginning to warm up, expect ERM populations to continue to pose a threat. Japanese beetle populations will also continue to increase. Monitoring for these pests and applying insecticides only if needed will save money at this time.

Looking ahead to next week, second generation codling moth and first generation plum curculio adults will become more important in lower elevations (Cleveland County), while things should remain similar to this week in higher elevations (Henderson County and similar elevations).


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
June 12 June 19 June 26
Codling moth  0.0 0.5 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 13.5 17.5 15.0
Tufted apple bud moth 12.0 1.0 1.0
Redbanded leafroller 8.0 0.0 2.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 7.0 2.0 1.0
Lesser appleworm 4.0 0.0 1.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.3 0.3 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 1.0
Dogwood borer 18.0 19.0 15.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 2.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 3.0 1.0 0.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
June 12 June 19 June 26
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 716 829 948
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 1176 1323 1478
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 823 970 1124

About degree-day models


June 20, 2023

Apple orchardAcross the region, we are in a period where the three major direct pests (codling moth, oriental fruit moth and tufted apple bud moth) pose little threat of damage to apples. This assumes that an insecticide effective against TABM has been applied in the past 10 (Henderson County and similar elevations) to 17 days (Cleveland County and similar elevations).

As mentioned in last week’s update, secondary pests that can be controlled using curative sprays, including green apple aphid, potato leafhopper, Japanese beetle, and European red mite are most common at this time. However, the cool and wet weather over the next few days will likely impede population growth of these pests.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
June 5 June 12 June 19
Codling moth  0.5 0.0 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 10.5 13.5 17.5
Tufted apple bud moth 14.0 12.0 1.0
Redbanded leafroller 10.0 8.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 3.0 7.0 2.0
Lesser appleworm 2.0 4.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 1.0 0.3 0.3
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 36.0 18.0 19.0
Peachtree borer 8.0 0.0 2.0
Lesser peachtree borer 2.0 3.0 1.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
June 6 June 12 June 19
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 623 716 829
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 1050 1176 1323
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 697 823 970

About degree-day models


June 12, 2023

BMSB trap in an orchardAt this time, the major pest of concern is first generation tufted apple bud moth (TABM) in Henderson County and at similar elevations. Across the region, green apple aphid and potato leafhopper are also appearing. There has also been at least one report of woolly apple aphid.

TABM degree day accumulation since biofix is at about 830 DD in Henderson County, which is equivalent to 8% egg hatch of the first generation, and represents the beginning of the window for optimum control. Excellent control is achieved with a single insecticide application made between 800 and 1200 DD, so anytime between now and the next two weeks will be sufficient. Recommended insecticides include Intrepid, Delegate or a diamide (Altacor, Exirel or Verdepryn). Intrepid is an inexpensive and excellent option under conditions of low codling moth pressure, while Delegate or a diamide should be considered if codling moth is still a concern. If one of the diamides has been used previously for codling moth, continue to use one of those products. Conversely, if Delegate has been used for first generation codling moth then continue to use that material.

The window for TABM control in lower elevations opened earlier, about 10 to 14 days ago. Hence, if one of the above insecticides was applied in the past two weeks, that should be sufficient TABM control.

First generation codling moth egg hatch is complete in Cleveland County and similar elevations with more than 1000 DD accumulated since biofix. In higher elevations (i.e., Henderson County), 730 DD have accumulated, which is equivalent to about 60% egg hatch. However, the threat of damage is minimal in orchards that have not experienced problems up to this point in time. Also, we are in the midst of second generation OFM flight, but as mentioned in previous posts, second generation OFM is rarely a problem.

Regarding green apple aphid and potato leafhopper, there are many materials available for control of these pests, including Actara, Admire (and generics), Assail, Belay, Sivanto Prime, Closer and Versys. For all materials, the lower end rates are recommended for aphids and leafhoppers. Both pests infest new shoot growth and are of greatest concern on high-density plantings or newer plantings compared to older trees. In addition to aphids and leafhoppers, expect Japanese beetle to begin emerging in lower elevations at any time.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 30 June 5 June 12
Codling moth  1.0 0.5 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 6.0 10.5 13.5
Tufted apple bud moth 75.0 14.0 12.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 10.0 8.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 7.0 3.0 7.0
Lesser appleworm 4.0 2.0 4.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 1.0 1.0 0.3
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 37.0 36.0 18.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 8.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 2.0 2.0 3.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 30 June 6 June 12
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 525 623 716
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 922 1050 1176
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 569 697 823

About degree-day models


June 6, 2023

close-up image of small applesIn Henderson County and similar elevations, first generation codling moth is still a potential threat. With about 650 DD accumulating since biofix, the model predicts >80% emergence of adults and 40% egg hatch of the first generation. Overall, populations thus far have been quite low, and the threat of populations suddenly increasing is unlikely in locations where they’ve been low to date. In lower elevations, the first generation is nearly complete and we are past the period of greatest concern.

Second generation oriental fruit moth emergence is underway throughout the region, but as mentioned last week, the second generation poses low risk if good control of the first generation was achieved.

Tufted apple bud moth egg hatch is just beginning in Henderson County and similar elevations, while it is nearly 20% complete in Cleveland County. The window for timing of insecticide applications for control of the first generation will begin later this week in Henderson County and remain open for the next couple of weeks. TABM is generally less of a problem in lower elevation orchards, but in those locations where it is a concern, an insecticide application anytime between last week and the next 10 days will provide excellent control.

To date, populations of green apple aphids and potato leafhopper have been very low, but we are in that time period when populations often begin to increase. Hence, scouting for these pests, along with European red mite, should intensify over the next few weeks.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 22 May 30 June 6
Codling moth  1.0 1.0 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 11.0 6.0 10.5
Tufted apple bud moth 50.0 75.0 14.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 10.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 1.0 7.0 3.0
Lesser appleworm 11.0 4.0 2.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 1.0 1.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 21.0 37.0 36.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 8.0
Lesser peachtree borer 14.0 2.0 2.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 22 May 30 June 6
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 443 525 623
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 801 922 1050
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 448 569 697

About degree-day models


May 30, 2023

image of an insect trap in an apple orchardCodling moth: Based on degree-day accumulations, first generation egg hatch of codling moth is about 25% and 61% complete in Henderson and Cleveland Counties, respectively. In lower elevations, the first generation is almost complete and the need for insecticide use beyond next week should decline. In Henderson County and similar elevations, codling moth is expected to be a concern for about two more weeks. With that said, moth populations have been quite low throughout the region, and use of pheromone traps to monitor populations would be valuable for eliminating unnecessary insecticide applications.

In orchards using mating disruption for codling moth and OFM, insecticidal control of the first generation is generally not necessary. However, insecticidal control of the tufted apple bud moth is often necessary, so see below for the timing of TABM applications and recommended insecticides.

Oriental fruit moth: Based on DD accumulations, second generation oriental fruit moth emergence is underway throughout the region. However, this generation is rarely a problem in orchards where first generation control was achieved (i.e., insecticides were applied at petal fall).

Tufted apple bud moth: Season-long control of TABM can be achieved with one well-timed insecticide application any time between about 750 and 1200 DD. In lower elevations (1,000 ft), about 820 DD have accumulated since biofix, which coincides with about 10% egg hatch, so there is about a two-week window beginning now to target this insect. In higher elevations (2,000 ft), application should be made sometime in a 2 to 3-wk period beginning next week. Insecticides recommended for TABM include Intrepid, Delegate or a diamide (Altacor, Exirel or Verdepryn). It is important to keep in mind that first generation codling moth is still a potential problem when TABM sprays are made, so choose a product that will not be used for second generation codling moth in July.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 15 May 22 May 30
Codling moth  2.0 1.0 1.0
Oriental fruit moth 29.0 11.0 6.0
Tufted apple bud moth 13.0 50.0 75.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 3.0 1.0 7.0
Lesser appleworm 11.0 4.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 1.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 27.0 21.0 37.0
Peachtree borer 4.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 31.0 14.0 2.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 15 May 22 May 30
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 338 443 525
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 662 801 922
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 308 448 569

About degree-day models


May 23, 2023

Apple orchardAs has been the case for the past couple of weeks, and will be for the next few weeks, first generation codling moth is the key pest at this time. Cumulative DD since biofix are about 450 (12% egg hatch complete) in Henderson County and 655 (40% egg hatch complete) in Cleveland County. However, with the relatively cool nights in higher elevations, flight activity and egg laying likely will be suppressed over the next several days. Moth activity begins around dusk and continues for several hours, but flight, mating and egg laying is suppressed when temperatures drop into the low 60s. With temperatures at or lower than 60 near sunset, this should help suppress activity through the weekend.

In lower elevation orchards such as Cleveland County, San Jose scale (SJS) crawler activity is underway. In fact, damage caused by crawlers feeding on fruit (red spots) was observed in at least one orchard. Hence, it would be wise to keep an eye out for SJS injury to fruit over the next few weeks. Assail has shown to be a good rescue treatment for SJS.

For those interested in tufted apple bud moth (TABM), we are at least two weeks from the ideal timing for control of this insect in Henderson County. As of today (5/23) we have accumulated about 450 DD since biofix, but the ideal timing for insecticidal control is about 800 DD. In lower elevation orchards, where TABM is usually less of a problem, DD accumulations are at about 640 DD, and 900 is predicted for early next week.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 8 May 15 May 22
Codling moth  3.0 2.0 1.0
Oriental fruit moth 38.0 29.0 11.0
Tufted apple bud moth 6.0 13.0 50.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 3.0 1.0
Lesser appleworm 11.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 4.0 27.0 21.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 4.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 7.0 31.0 14.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 8 May 15 May 22
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 220 338 443
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 508 662 801
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 155 308 448

About degree-day models


May 17, 2023

Insect trap in apple orchardThe codling moth remains the key pest at this time, and relatively warm temperatures during the past week have accelerated degree day (DD) accumulations throughout the region. DD accumulations in lower elevations (e.g., Cleveland, Burke Co.) are at about 550, which coincides with about 80% of first generation moths emerged, and 30% of eggs hatched. This is a time when populations are most intense, and insecticides should be a part of the management program at this time if mating disruption is not being used. In higher elevations (Henderson County), we have reached about 370 DD, which represents 55% adult emergence and 5% egg hatch. Generally, the need for first generation management runs from about 250 to 1000 DDs, with the period between about 350 to 800 most critical.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 1 May 8 May 15
Codling moth  0.5 3.0 2.0
Oriental fruit moth 26.0 38.0 29.0
Tufted apple bud moth 9.0 6.0 13.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 3.0
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 1.0 4.0 27.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 4.0
Lesser peachtree borer 7.0 7.0 31.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 1 May 8 May 15
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 170 220 338
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 433 508 662
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 80 155 308

About degree-day models


May 9, 2023

Codling moth larvaThe abrupt increase in temperatures has accelerated emergence of first generation codling moth, which is the key pest of concern at this time. Degree-day (DD) accumulations in lower elevation orchards (e.g., Cleveland County) are about 400 as of today (9 May), which is equivalent to about 60% adult emergence and 7% egg hatch. Now through the next 2 to 3 weeks presents the greatest potential threat by first generation CM in these lower elevation orchards. In Henderson County and similar elevations (2100 ft), DD accumulations are 233 as of today. First generation egg hatch begins at about 250 DD, which will occur over the next couple of days. In recent years codling moth populations have been fairly low in many commercial orchards, and under those conditions an initial insecticide application can be delayed to about 350 DD, which will occur early next week.

In orchards using mating disruption, supplemental insecticides are usually not necessary against the first codling moth generation. However, pheromone traps should be deployed to confirm that populations are indeed low (<3 cumulative moths/trap over a two week period). An insecticide is recommended against first generation tufted apple bud moth (TABM), but that timing will not be for at least 3 weeks.

For those who are concerned about San Jose scale, and where early emerging codling moth populations are relatively low, Assail should be considered as a first cover spray. Assail will provide good control of low codling moth populations and is also very effective against San Jose scale crawlers.

Preventive Control of European Red Mite: With increased pyrethroid use against stink bugs in recent years, preventive control of European red mite (ERM) has become a more common practice. Preventive products include Apollo, Savey, Zeal, Envidor and Agri-Mek. Petal fall to second cover is generally the best timing for these applications, because they are most effective when ERM are still low. There have already been reports of ERM appearing in significant numbers in some orchards. Agri-Mek should be applied at petal fall to first cover, with either a horticultural oil or penetrating adjuvant to maximize uptake by leaves – if using oil do not use within 14 days of Captan applications. For resistance management purposes, products with different modes of action should be rotated annually. Apollo and Savey are the same mode of action (MOA group 10A), so do not use either of these in successive years.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 24 May 1 May 8
Codling moth  8.0 0.5 3.0
Oriental fruit moth 89.5 26.0 38.0
Tufted apple bud moth 19.0 9.0 6.0
Redbanded leafroller 4.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 1.5 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 1.0 4.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 45.0 7.0 7.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 24 May 1 May 8
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 130 170 220
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 366 433 508
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 80 155

About degree-day models


May 3, 2023

Rosy apple aphids in apple leafCodling moth is the main pest of concern at this time. With biofix dates of April 1st and 7th  in Cleveland and Henderson Counties, respectively, a total of about 145 and 300 degree-days have accumulated thus far. The codling moth egg-hatch model predicts initial egg hatch to occur at 250 DD after biofix. Hence, insecticides may be necessary in lower elevation orchards (about 1,000 ft elevation) at this time. Egg hatch in Henderson County (about 2100 ft elevation) is not expected to begin for another 7 to 10 days.

In orchards using mating disruption, it is unlikely that insecticides will be necessary for first generation codling moth. However, pheromone traps should be used to confirm that supplemental insecticides are not required. Unless there is a cumulative trap capture of >3 moths over a two week period, insecticides are not recommended for codling moth.

If needed, there is still time to apply an insecticide targeting San Jose scale crawlers. First cover is generally the time when crawler emergence begins in earnest, so preventive control should be applied no later than first cover. Esteem, Centaur, Movento and Assail all provide good control, but from a resistance management perspective, avoid using the same material twice in the same year, and if possible rotate materials among years as well.

Rosy apple aphid populations have been fairly high in certain areas this year. RAA populations tend to naturally decline with warmer temperatures, so the cool weather we are experiencing tends to prolong the infestation period of this insect. Before spraying specifically for this insect, unravel curled leaves to confirm the presence of live aphids. There are many insecticides with excellent activity against RAA, including Admire Pro (and generics), Actara, Assail, Beleaf, Closer, Sivanto Prime, and Movento.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 17 Apr 24 May 1
Codling moth  2.0 8.0 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 67.5 89.5 26.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 19.0 9.0
Redbanded leafroller 4.0 4.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 1.5 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0 1.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 20.0 45.0 7.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 17 Apr 24 May 1
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 72 130 170
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 285 366 433
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 80

About degree-day models


April 26, 2023

Apple orchard in springSorry about starting the pest updates a little late this year, but it’s taken us a while to get our footing after falling behind with the earliness of the season. Bloom is essentially complete throughout most of the region, and most orchards are between petal fall and first cover. That means the key pests at this time are plum curculio, oriental fruit moth (OFM), San Jose scale, and codling moth (coming along shortly).

Except for the highest elevation orchards, hopefully a petal fall insecticide has been applied, targeting plum curculio and OFM. In those orchards where a prebloom spray for rosy apple aphid was not made, something for this insect should also be considered. There are several insecticides or combinations of products that can achieve this goal. Voliam Flexi (premix containing chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam) is the only product that will control all three insects, while Avaunt, Imidan and Verdepryn will control plum curculio and OFM, and Belay and Actara will control plum curculio and rosy apple aphid.

If an insecticide for San Jose scale was not applied before bloom, the window for control is still open until First Cover. Insecticides of choice include Esteem, Centaur or Assail. Esteem and Centaur are the highest rated products for SJS, but Assail also has good activity. It serves as a good choice at First Cover as it will also provide control of early emerging codling moth and supplement rosy apple aphid control.

The cooler weather extending into the middle of next week will slow codling moth activity. Biofix for codling moth in Henderson County was 7 April, and is usually about a week earlier at lower elevations in Cleveland and Burke Counties. With only 130 DD accumulated as of 25 April, we are likely 7 to 10 days or so before egg hatch begins in most orchards. However, this may be further delayed if evening temperatures remain low, because moth activity is suppressed when temperatures are less than 62°F during dusk and shortly after.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 11 Apr 17 Apr 24
Codling moth  2.0 2.0 8.0
Oriental fruit moth 95.5 67.5 89.5
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 19.0
Redbanded leafroller 2.0 4.0 4.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.5 0.0 1.5
Spotted tentiform leafminer 1.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 7.0 20.0 45.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 11 Apr 17 Apr 24
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 19 72 130
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 201 285 366
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 21) 13

About degree-day models


April 17, 2023

Apple orchard in bloom


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 3 Apr 11 Apr 17
Codling moth  0.0 2.0 2.0
Oriental fruit moth 99.0 95.5 67.5
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 5.0 2.0 4.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.5 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 1.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 7.0 20.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 3 Apr 11 Apr 17
Codling moth (Biofix: April 7) 19 72
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 114 201 285
Tufted apple bud moth

About degree-day models


April 11, 2023

Bee on apple bloom


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 27 Apr 3 Apr 11
Codling moth  0.0 2.0
Oriental fruit moth 68.0 99.0 95.5
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 7.0 5.0 2.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 0.5
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 1.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 0.0 7.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Mar 27 Apr 3 Apr 11
Codling moth
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 55 114 201
Tufted apple bud moth

About degree-day models


April 3, 2023

Insect trap in an apple orchard


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 20 Mar 27 Apr 2
Codling moth 
Oriental fruit moth 0.0 68.0 99.0
Tufted apple bud moth
Redbanded leafroller 2.0 7.0 5.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer
Dogwood borer
Peachtree borer
Lesser peachtree borer
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0
Ambrosia beetle (all species)

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Mar 20 Mar 27 Apr 2
Codling moth
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 55 114
Tufted apple bud moth

About degree-day models


March 27, 2023

Apple trees in an orchard


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 13 Mar 20 Mar 27
Codling moth 
Oriental fruit moth 8.0 0.0 68.0
Tufted apple bud moth
Redbanded leafroller 6.0 2.0 7.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) set 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer
Dogwood borer
Peachtree borer
Lesser peachtree borer
San Jose scale set 0.0
Ambrosia beetle (all species)

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Mar 13 Mar 20 Mar 27
Codling moth
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 24) 55
Tufted apple bud moth

About degree-day models


March 22, 2023

Frozen trees in an orchard


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 6 Mar 13 Mar 20
Codling moth 
Oriental fruit moth 1.5 8.0 0.0
Tufted apple bud moth
Redbanded leafroller 4.0 6.0 2.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) set
Spotted tentiform leafminer
Dogwood borer
Peachtree borer
Lesser peachtree borer
San Jose scale set
Ambrosia beetle (all species)

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Mar 6 Mar 13 Mar 20
Codling moth
Oriental fruit moth
Tufted apple bud moth

About degree-day models


2023 Pest Population Trends

Oriental Fruit Moth Data Redbanded Leafroller data


March 10, 2023

European red mite eggs on barkOil or No Oil Pre-bloom: What are the Consequences?

The primary goal of pre-bloom apple pest management is to suppress or control pest populations that overwinter within the orchard. Two of the most important are the European red mite (ERM) and San Jose scale (SJS). Both overwinter as immatures on bark of limbs and twigs – ERM in the egg stage often near buds and fruit spurs, and SJS as nymphs under waxy scales also on branches and the trunk. These sessile life stages make them very susceptible to pesticides compared to the mobile stages that emerge after bloom.

With more widespread use of pyrethroid insecticides for brown marmorated stink bug in recent years, problems with ERM and SJS populations have become more common. Pyrethroids are highly toxic to many natural enemies and have behavioral effects that can flare populations of both pests. Hence, the use of pre-bloom practices that can suppress overwintering populations of ERM and SJS can help to reduce the size of overwintering populations, and either reduce the need for or improve the performance of pesticides applied post-bloom.

Horticultural Oils: Refined horticultural oils have been used for more than a century for pre-bloom control of ERM and SJS on fruit trees. Dormant or delayed-dormant oil applications suffocate mite eggs and scale nymphs by preventing oxygen uptake and disrupting cell membranes. Because mite eggs and scales can be partially protected by bark, and because oil has no residual activity, application at high water volume is important for good coverage. Delayed dormant oil applications have proven to be highly effective at suppressing ERM and SJS populations and safe to most beneficial arthropods.

Insecticides: Since the 1960s, Lorsban (chlorpyrifos) was commonly included with oil to improve control of mites and scales. Its long residual activity on bark extended control so that the combination of oil + Lorsban often provided season long-control. The efficacy of pre-bloom Lorsban for scale began to erode by the time its registration was cancelled in 2020. Consequently, there was increased use of other scale insecticides, most commonly Esteem and Centaur.

Application of these materials can be pre-bloom with oil, or delayed until petal fall to first cover to target first generation crawlers. The post-bloom timing has become common, because the combination of delayed dormant oil and post-bloom insecticide extends the period of protection against multiple life stages (overwintering immatures and first generation crawlers). Two other insecticides with good scale activity are Assail and Diazinon, the later an organophosphate that is undergoing review by the EPA.

Control in the Absence of Pre-bloom Oil: While oil remains a highly effective management tool and its use is encouraged, its high cost is causing some to reconsider its use this year. In the absence of oil, growers should consider including an insecticide targeting scale both before bloom and between petal fall and first cover. However, the insecticide used at these different times should have different modes of action to reduce the potential for resistance development. Probably the most economical approach is to use either Esteem or Centaur before bloom, and Assail post-bloom, because Assail applied at first cover provides the benefit of controlling some key pests at that time, including rosy apple aphid and codling moth.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2023 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Feb 20 Feb 27 Mar 6
Codling moth 
Oriental fruit moth set 1.5
Tufted apple bud moth
Redbanded leafroller 1.0 26.0 4.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed)
Spotted tentiform leafminer
Dogwood borer
Peachtree borer
Lesser peachtree borer
San Jose scale
Ambrosia beetle (all species)

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2023 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Feb 20 Feb 27 Mar 6
Codling moth
Oriental fruit moth
Tufted apple bud moth

About degree-day models


Written By

Jim Walgenbach, N.C. Cooperative ExtensionDr. Jim WalgenbachProfessor & Extension Entomology Specialist (Fruits / Vegetables) Call Dr. Jim Email Dr. Jim Entomology & Plant Pathology
NC State Extension, NC State University
Page Last Updated: 4 months ago
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