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WNC Orchard Insect Populations

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July 18, 2024

Green June beetlesSecond generation codling moth is still a potential concern throughout the region. At about 1720 and 2100 degree-day (DD) accumulations, adult emergence is about 40% and 70% complete in Henderson and Cleveland County, respectively. See the June 26 update for more information on the need and options for insecticidal control.

Emergence of first generation brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) has begun in Cleveland County, where about 15% of the adult population has emergence as of June 17 (about 800 DD). Only 608 DD have accumulated since biofix in Henderson County, and it will be at least another 2 weeks before emergence begins (at 740 DD) at this elevation. It is noteworthy that DD accumulations for BMSB are about 2 weeks ahead of last year. Also, to date BMSB pheromone trap captures have been very low. Hopefully the trend of declining BMSB populations we’ve seen in recent years will continue.

There have been some questions about insecticides for control of Japanese beetles and June bugs. There are a wide range of products that will provide effective control, including carbaryl (Sevin), and most neonicotinoids and pyrethroids. I would opt for either carbaryl or a neonicotinoid (check PHI of the product) at this time in locations where BMSB emergence has not yet begun, since the later that pyrethroid applications can be delayed for BMSB the lower the chance of flaring secondary pests (e.g., primarily scale and woolly apple aphid at this time).


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jul 2 Jul 8 Jul 15
Codling moth  2.0 0.5 3.0
Oriental fruit moth 14.5 12.0 14.5
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 1.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned orchard) 0.0 0.0 1.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 0.3 0.3 0.7
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed research orchard) 0.7 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 48.0 42.0 38.0
Peachtree borer 1.0 1.0 10.0
Lesser peachtree borer 8.0 5.0 1.0
San Jose scale 165.0 66.5 17.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jul 2 Jul 8 July 15
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) 1326 1483 1665
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 1994 2176 2393
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) 1700 1882 2099

About degree-day models


2024 Pest Population Trends

Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends Chart showing insect population trends


PREVIOUS REPORTS

July 10, 2024

Brown marmorated stink bugBased on degree-day accumulations, the codling moth  degree-day (DD) model predicts that second generation adult emergence is about 30% and 60% complete in Henderson County (1533 DD) and Cleveland County (1890 DD). Unless captures in pheromone traps consistently average more than 5 moths/week, it is unlikely that more than two insecticide applications will be necessary against the second generation. If trap captures remain consistently low, one application may suffice.

Orchards treated with mating disruption generally do not require insecticide treatments for the second generation, although pheromone trapping is recommended to account for the unexpected.

First generation brown marmorated stink bug adults are predicted to begin emerging this week in lower elevation orchards such as Cleveland County, where 750 DD is predicted to occur on Saturday. If concerned about damage from this pest, next week would be optimum timing for a pyrethroid application. Populations have generally been low thus far, but that is not always a good predictor of the intensity of first generation adult populations. In Henderson County where DD accumulations have only reached 540, it’ll be several more weeks before adult emergence begins.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 24 Jul 2 Jul 8
Codling moth  0.5 2.0 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 12.0 14.5 12.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 4.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (research orchards) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned orchard) 2.0 0.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.3 0.3 0.3
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed research orchard) 1.0 0.7 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 31.0 48.0 42.0
Peachtree borer 10.0 1.0 15.0
Lesser peachtree borer 2.0 8.0 5.0
San Jose scale 200.0 165.0 66.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jun 24 July 2 July 8
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) 1128 1326 1483
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 1756 1994 2176
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) 1462 1700 1882

About degree-day models


July 3, 2024

European red mites on apple leafCodling Moth: As summarized in last week’s update, second generation codling moth is the key concern at this time. Egg laying in the southeast begins between 1400 and 1450 degree days (DD), and as of July 3 DD totals in Henderson and Cleveland County were 1370 and 1717. Ideally a first application has been applied in Cleveland County and similar elevations. In Henderson County and similar elevations, the optimum timing for a first application is July 5 or 6. However, in orchards with very low populations and where only a single application for the second generation is needed, delaying the application to 1600 DD will likely be sufficient.

In orchards using mating disruption and having very low populations, the need for insecticides targeting codling moth are questionable. At most, only a single application is likely necessary.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB): In lower elevation orchards, we are getting closer to the emergence of first generation BMSB adults, which historically is the most damaging time for this pest. First emergence begins at approximately 750 DD. As of July 3, total cumulative DD in Cleveland and Henderson Counties were 632 and 496, respectively. Based on forecasts, BMSB emergence in Cleveland County is predicted to begin in about 10 to 12 days. In Henderson County and similar elevations, it’ll be at least 3 weeks or longer before emergence begins.

European Red Mite (ERM): Typically, orchards that have avoided ERM population build up by about July 7 have a low potential for mite problems the remainder of the year. While mite problems continue to exist in several locations, the threat should become less of an issue over the next week or so. Nonetheless, there are exceptions to the rule, so monitoring populations for the next couple of weeks should continue. It is noteworthy that most orchards that we have visited for mite collections have had good predatory mite populations.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 19 Jun 24 Jul 2
Codling moth  1.0 0.5 2.0
Oriental fruit moth 18.0 12.0 14.5
Tufted apple bud moth 1.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 4.0 0.0
Apple maggot (research orchards) 1.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned orchard) 0.0 2.0 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.0 1.3 0.3
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed research orchard) 1.0 1.0 0.7
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 25.0 31.0 48.0
Peachtree borer 14.0 10.0 1.0
Lesser peachtree borer 14.0 2.0 8.0
San Jose scale 20.0 200.0 165.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jun 19 Jun 24 July 2
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) 1010 1128 1326
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 1614 1756 1994
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) 1320 1462 1700

About degree-day models


June 27, 2024

It’s Time for Second Generation Codling Moth

Apple with codling moth damageCurrent Conditions: In lower elevation orchards (i.e., less than about 1400 feet, such as Cleveland County), second generation codling egg laying has started (cumulative DD are at about 1480). In higher elevation orchards such as Henderson County, where DD accumulations are at about 1180, and it will be another 7 to 10 days before egg laying is predicted to begin. Egg laying in the southeast begins between 1400-1450 DD

Determining the Need for Insecticidal Control: Remember that the codling moth degree-day model is a tool to aid in timing insecticide sprays to coincide with egg hatch of respective generations. It does not predict the need for sprays. Codling moth populations vary widely from location to location, and insecticidal control is not necessary in orchards with extremely low populations. Conditions in which populations are at extremely low density and where insecticidal control is most frequently NOT needed for the second generation include:

1) Orchards where mating disruption has been used for multiple years and there is no evidence of damage by the first generation. Regular use of mating disruption greatly suppresses populations and can lead to near local extinction.

2) Non-mating disruption orchards that also have low populations, characterized by the absence of damage from first generation larvae (i.e., infested fruit) and low pheromone trap captures.

Pheromone trapping is an essential tool to gauge population densities and the need for insecticidal sprays. If mating disruption is not used, a conservative threshold to dictate the need for sprays is 5 moths per trap per week (using a CM L2 lure). In mating disruption orchards, the capture of 3 moths per trap cumulatively over a two-week period warrants an insecticide application.

Insecticide Resistance Management: Since 2008, chemical control of codling moth has relied primarily on insecticides in two different classes: the diamides (Altacor, Exirel, and Verdepryn) and spinosyns (Delegate). Alternating the use of these two groups of insecticides against the different generations has likely contributed to the long-term effectiveness of these products. As a reminder, reserve one class of products against the first generation and the other for the second generation. For example, if Altacor (or Exirel or Verdepryn) was applied during the first generation, do not use these products during second generation flight, but instead apply Delegate. Alternatively, if Delegate was applied against the first generation then use the diamides during second generation flight. The goal is to avoid exposing the same generation to both types of products.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 10 Jun 19 Jun 24
Codling moth  3.5 1.0 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 29.0 18.0 12.0
Tufted apple bud moth 16.0 1.0 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 2.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 2.0 0.0 4.0
Apple maggot (research orchards) 0.0 1.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned orchard) 0.0 0.0 2.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 3.0 1.0 1.3
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed research orchard) 0.0 1.0 1.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 25.0 25.0 31.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 14.0 10.0
Lesser peachtree borer 18.0 14.0 2.0
San Jose scale 0.0 20.0 200.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jun 10 Jun 19 Jun 24
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) 814 1010 1128
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 1372 1614 1756
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) 1078 1320 1462

About degree-day models


June 19, 2024

Mountain view with apple orchardLittle has changed in the past week in terms of arthropod pests of apples. We are currently between first and second generation of the codling moth, and second-generation oriental fruit moth populations remain typically low. The major concerns are European red mites, leafhoppers and aphids. Leafhoppers and aphids have been considerably lower than normal this year, and with new shoot growth beginning to harden off and becoming less attractive to aphids and leafhoppers, the potential need for insecticidal control also declines. With warm and dry conditions in the forecast, mites remain a key threat.

Based on model predictions for the Southeast, optimum timing of insecticide sprays for low to moderate codling moth populations is between 1400 and 1450 DD. This is expected to occur early next week in lower elevation orchards in Cleveland County, and in about two weeks in Henderson County and similar elevations. However, in orchards using mating disruption or with very low populations based on pheromone trap captures, insecticide sprays are often not needed for the second generation. Pheromone trap monitoring is an important tool to gauge the need for insecticides.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 3 Jun 10 Jun 19
Codling moth  0.0 3.5 1.0
Oriental fruit moth 3.5 29.0 18.0
Tufted apple bud moth 25.0 16.0 1.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 2.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 2.0 2.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0 0.5
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 0.5 3.0 1.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 1.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 41.0 25.0 25.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 14.0
Lesser peachtree borer 3.0 18.0 14.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 20.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Jun 3 Jun 10 Jun 19
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) 679 814 1010
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 1202 1372 1614
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) 908 1078 1320

About degree-day models


June 12, 2024

Aphids on leafBased on degree-day accumulations (850 in Henderson and 1130 in Cleveland Counties), first generation codling moth egg hatch is essentially complete. However, some orchards, particularly at higher elevations, may have late-emerging or large codling moth populations that require continued insecticide treatments. Pheromone trap captures are the best method for gauging the need for additional insecticides during this period. Although many factors can affect pheromone trap captures, between 5 and 10 moths over a one week period can serve as a conservative threshold level.

As mentioned last week we have entered that period when several indirect pests are the major drivers of pest management decisions for the next few weeks. European red mite, apple aphids and potato leafhopper, all of which may or may not develop to damaging levels, should be the focus of monitoring programs at this time. To date aphids and leafhoppers have been below damaging levels in most orchards. Where present, mites populations could increase rapidly with the warm and dry conditions predicted in the near future. Applying miticides based on a threshold level of between 5 and 10 mites per leaf at this time will prevent populations from reaching damaging levels.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 28 Jun 3 Jun 10
Codling moth  0.5 0.0 3.5
Oriental fruit moth 9.0 3.5 29.0
Tufted apple bud moth 20.0 25.0 16.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 3.0 0.0 2.0
Lesser appleworm 8.0 2.0 2.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards) 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 0.5
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 50.0 41.0 25.0
Peachtree borer 1.0 1.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 20.0 3.0 18.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 28 Jun 3 Jun 10
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) 602 679 814
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 1096 1202 1372
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) 802 908 1078

About degree-day models


June 5, 2024

Apple orchardWith codling moth degree days at about 750 and 1000 in Henderson and Cleveland Counties, respectively, first generation flight is nearly complete in Henderson County and complete in the lower elevation Cleveland County. The need for further insecticides targeting first generation codling moth is unlikely unless there is a recent history of problems.

The window for control of tufted apple bud moth is still open in Henderson County, where cumulative degree days are at 990. It is a little late in lower elevation orchards, but historically TABM has been most important in Henderson County and less important in lower elevation orchards.

Second generation oriental fruit moth is in the early stages of emergence, but control of this generation is rarely needed when control of first generation was effective.

With the early season threat of the three major lepidopteran pests (codling moth, OFM, and TABM) now complete, it is time to focus on a group of indirect pests (aphids, leafhoppers and mites) that do not require preventive control. Over the next few weeks insecticide use can be minimized (and money saved) by monitoring for these pests and applying a pesticide only if needed.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 20 May 28 Jun 3
Codling moth  0.5 0.5 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 12.0 9.0 3.5
Tufted apple bud moth 33.0 20.0 25.0
Redbanded leafroller 1.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 3.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 8.0 2.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 50.0 41.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 1.0 1.0
Lesser peachtree borer 6.0 20.0 3.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 20 May 28 Jun 3
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) 439 602 679
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 893 1096 1202
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) 599 802 908

About degree-day models


May 29, 2024

Green apple aphidsCodling moth degree-day (DD) accumulations are currently about 620 and 830 in Henderson and Cleveland Counties, respectively. At 620 DD, first generation egg hatch is about 50% complete, while at 830 DD it is more than 80% complete. Unless there is a history of codling moth damage, the need for additional insecticides in lower elevation orchards (less than about 1200 ft) is questionable.

Tufted apple bud moth DDs range from about 830 in Henderson County to 1000 in Cleveland County, which is the window for optimum timing of insecticides for control of TABM. As mentioned in last week’s update, a single application of Intrepid, a diamide (Altacor, Exirel, Verdepryn) or Delegate will provide season-long control.

With June approaching, expect aphids, leafhoppers and mites to begin to appear over the next few weeks. These are all pests that can be managed curatively, so scouting to determine the need for management action will help to minimize pesticide inputs.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 13 May 20 May 28
Codling moth  1.0 0.5 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 11.0 12.0 9.0
Tufted apple bud moth 20.0 33.0 20.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 1.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 1.0 0.0 3.0
Lesser appleworm 4.0 0.0 8.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 22.0 50.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 1.0
Lesser peachtree borer 7.0 6.0 20.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 13 May 20 May 28
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) 336 439 602
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 755 893 1096
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) 461 599 802

About degree-day models


May 22, 2024

Codling mothOnce again, codling moth continues to be the key pest of concern throughout the region, and we are in the middle of first generation flight. Degree-day accumulations range from about 480 in Henderson County to 670 in Cleveland County, which corresponds to approximately 20 and 60% completion of egg hatch. Although populations appear to be quite low in commercial orchards, one should assume populations are potentially high enough to require insecticidal control if NOT using mating disruption or monitoring flight activity with pheromone traps. Two-week interval sprays of recommended insecticides are usually sufficient.
Tufted apple bud moth (TABM) DD accumulations range from 680 in Henderson County to 850 in Cleveland County, and a single application between about 800 to 1200 DD will provide excellent control if applying Intrepid, a diamide (Altacor, Exirel, Verdepryn) or Delegate. In Henderson County and similar elevations, 800 DD is predicted for early next week.

Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 6 May 13 May 20
Codling moth  0.0 1.0 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 21.5 11.0 12.0
Tufted apple bud moth 16.0 20.0 33.0
Redbanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 1.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 1.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 4.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer n/a 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 17.0 22.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 12.0 7.0 6.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
May 6 May 13 May 20
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) 239 336 439
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 625 755 893
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) 331 461 599

About degree-day models


Trap in apple orchardMay 15, 2024

Codling Moth remains the primary insect of concern at this time. As of May 14, the egg hatch model varied from 360 (20% egg hatch) to 530 degree days (60% egg hatch) in Henderson and Cleveland County, respectively. While there have not been reports of high populations, insecticides are important at this time if not monitoring populations with pheromone traps or not using mating disruption.

In orchards using mating disruption for codling moth, one insecticide application during first generation flight timed for tufted apple bud moth sprays is usually sufficient. This will occur in about one week in lower elevation orchards and in at least two weeks in higher elevation orchards (≥2000 ft elevation).

For those choosing preventive control of European red mite, an application within the next week or so is ideal timing. For resistance management, choose products with a different mode of action (MOA) annually – i.e., do not apply the same MOA in consecutive years. Materials effective for this strategy at this time are Apollo or Savey (both same MOA 10A), Zeal (MOA 10B), and Envidor (MOA 23).


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 29 May 6 May 13
Codling moth  1.0 0.0 1.0
Oriental fruit moth 28.5 21.5 11.0
Tufted apple bud moth 11.0 16.0 20.0
Redbanded leafroller 6.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 1.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 4.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 n/a 0.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 17.0 22.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 2.0 12.0 7.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 29 May 6 May 13
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) 139 239 336
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 490 625 755
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) 196 331 461

About degree-day models


May 8, 2024

Apple orchardCodling moth remains the key potential pest at this time throughout the region, ranging from early to mid-egg hatch of the first generation. Degree-days range from about 275 DD (5% egg hatch) in Henderson County (2050 ft elevation) to 420 DD (35% egg hatch) in Cleveland County (900 ft). Cooler temperatures are predicted beginning Friday, which will result in conditions less conducive to egg laying for about a week.

If targeting San Jose crawlers for insecticidal control, we are at the tail end of the ideal timing of that application. If this spray has not yet been made, it should be made as soon as possible.

For those considering preventive control of European red mite, first to second cover sprays are generally good timing for these applications. More important than timing is to apply materials when mites are still low in numbers.

Insecticide recommendations provided last week are still relevant, and will be for the next few weeks.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 22 Apr 29 May 6
Codling moth  4.5 1.0 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 60.0 28.5 21.5
Tufted apple bud moth 3.0 11.0 16.0
Redbanded leafroller 4.0 6.0 0.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 0.7 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 2.0 0.0 n/a
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0 17.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 4.0 2.0 12.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 22 Apr 29 May 6
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) 77 139 239
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 401 490 625
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) 107 196 331

About degree-day models


May 1, 2024

Apple orchardCodling Moth: Apples range from post petal fall to first cover throughout the region, with egg hatching beginning in lower elevations. Cumulative degree-days (DD) range from about 160 in Henderson County to 285 in Cleveland County. With egg hatch underway in lower elevations (e.g., <1500 ft), an initial insecticide targeting codling moth may be necessary if not using mating disruption or not monitoring populations with pheromone traps to obtain information on the intensity of populations. Based on the weather forecast, 250 degree days (beginning of egg hatch) will occur early next week in Henderson County and at similar elevations. With low codling moth populations, which is the case in many orchards, an initial insecticide application can be delayed until about 350 DD (predicted to occur on May 9 in Henderson County).

In orchards using mating disruption for codling moth, a single insecticide application for first generation codling moth is usually sufficient, and ideal timing is to coincide with TABM control, which occurs at the second or third cover spray.

For insecticide resistance management purposes, do not use insecticides from the same MOA group (see table below) against both the first and second codling moth generation. The second generation will occur in July.

San Jose Scale (SJS): For those growers targeting crawlers, an insecticide targeting this insect should be applied within the next week. The most highly rated insecticides for SJS are Esteem, Centaur, and Movento. Due to insecticide resistance concerns, do not rely on the same insecticide in consecutive years; instead rotate products with different modes of action on an annual basis. Assail also has good activity against SJS, which will further benefit scale control if used over the next several weeks. It should be noted that Esteem and Assail both have activity against codling moth, with Esteem being a good ovicide and Assail providing suppression of adults and larvae.

European Red Mite (ERM): For those choosing a preventive management program for ERM, options include Agri-Mek, Apollo, Savey, Envidor and Zeal. Agri-Mek needs to be applied no later than 1st Cover, and ideally at petal fall. The remaining products should be applied at or shortly between 1st and 2nd cover, and/or before mites increase to 1 or 2 mites per leaf. Again, resistance development is a concern when relying on the same mode of action in consecutive years, so it is strongly recommended to rotate products with different mode of actions on an annual basis (see table below).

Recommended Insecticides/Miticides Options for Upcoming Sprays
(Relative Efficacy 5 = excellent, 1= poor, ― no activity or no data)
Product Codling Moth San Jose Scale Preventive ERM
MOA group 4A
  Assail 4 4
MOA group 5
   Delegate 5
MOA group 6
   Agr-Mek 5
MOA group 7C
   Esteem 3 5
MOA group 10
   Apollo 5
   Savey 5
   Zeal 5
MOA group 16
   Centaur 5
MOA group 23
   Envidor 5
   Movento 4
MOA Class 28

Altacor

Exirel

Verdepryn

5

5

5


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 15 Apr 22 Apr 29
Codling moth  0.5 4.5 1.0
Oriental fruit moth 103.0 60.0 28.5
Tufted apple bud moth 2.0 3.0 11.0
Redbanded leafroller 2.0 4.0 6.0
Obliquebanded leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) 1.0 0.7 0.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) 1.0 0.7 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 2.0 2.0 0.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 3.0 4.0 2.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 15 Apr 22 Apr 29
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) biofix 77 139
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 288 401 490
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) biofix 107 196

About degree-day models


April 22, 2024

apple orchardPetal Fall Sprays and Upcoming Insect Pests:

The cool weather this week has slowed development and activity of key pests targeted at petal fall. This will expand the window for optimum timing of applications until this weekend or early next week.

Target pests at petal fall include plum curculio, oriental fruit moth (OFM) and, if not controlled before bloom, rosy apple aphid. If mating disruption for codling moth and OFM was deployed before OFM started to fly about the third week of March, insecticidal control may not be necessary. The relative efficacy of insecticides recommended at petal fall are shown in the table below. Note that all insecticides recommended at bloom are toxic to bees, so delay petal fall sprays on those cultivars still in heavy bloom, most likely Romes.

Looking ahead over the next couple of weeks, pests to plan for include San Jose scale between petal fall and first cover, preventive control of European red mite and codling moth.

Relative Efficacy of Insecticides for Petal Fall

( ─ no activity, 1 = least effective, 5 = most effective)

Insecticide (active

ingredient

Plum Curculio

Oriental Fruit Moth

Rosy Apple Aphid

Toxicity to Bees

Actara (thiamethoxam) 5 2 5 Highly Toxic
Assail (acetamiprid) 3 4 5 Moderately Toxic
Belay (chlothianidin) 4 3 5 Highly Toxic
Avaunt (Indoxacarb) 4 4 Highly Toxic
Imidan (phosmet) 4 4 Highly Toxic
Verdepryn (cyclaniliprole) 4 5 Highly Toxic
Sevin (carbaryl) 3 3 Highly Toxic
Voliam Flexi
(thiamethoxam +
chlorantraniliprole)
5 5 5 Highly Toxic

Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 8 Apr 15 Apr 22
Codling moth  0.0 0.5 4.5
Oriental fruit moth 108.5 103.0 60.0
Tufted apple bud moth 0.0 2.0 3.0
Redbanded leafroller 2.0 2.0 4.0
Obliquebanded leafroller setup 0.0 0.0
Lesser appleworm setup 0.0 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) setup 1.0 0.7
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) setup 0.0 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 2.0 2.0 2.0
Dogwood borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer 0.0 3.0 4.0
San Jose scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 8 Apr 15 Apr 22
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) biofix 77
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 188 288 401
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) biofix 107

About degree-day models


April 15, 2024

Petal Fall Sprays – Have Patience until Bloom Subsides

apple blossomsWith a heavy bloom throughout the region, apples vary from full bloom to the petal fall stage. With virtually every orchard containing multiple cultivars, this complicates the timing of petal fall sprays, because both honey bees and wild bees likely will be foraging in the vicinity of drift when spraying. Unfortunately insecticides recommended for key pests at petal fall are highly toxic to bees, so insecticide sprays should be delayed until:

1) >80% petals have dropped

2) bees are not flying in orchards susceptible to drift

3) bees have been removed from orchards

Be sure to check labels on precautions to avoid bee kills, because the wording varies among products.

Relative Efficacy of Insecticides for Petal Fall

( ─ no activity, 1 = least effective, 5 = most effective)

Insecticide (active

ingredient

Plum Curculio

Oriental Fruit Moth

Rosy Apple Aphid

Toxicity to Bees

Actara (thiamethoxam) 5 2 5 Highly Toxic
Assail (acetamiprid) 3 4 5 Moderately Toxic
Belay (chlothianidin) 4 3 5 Highly Toxic
Avaunt (Indoxacarb) 4 4 Highly Toxic
Imidan (phosmet) 4 4 Highly Toxic
Verdepryn (cyclaniliprole) 4 5 Highly Toxic
Sevin (carbaryl) 3 3 Highly Toxic
Voliam Flexi
(thiamethoxam +
chlorantraniliprole)
5 5 5 Highly Toxic

Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 1 Apr 8 Apr 15
Codling moth  setup 0.0 0.5
Oriental fruit moth 100.0 108.5 103.0
Tufted apple bud moth setup 0.0 2.0
Redbanded leafroller 1.0 2.0 2.0
Obliquebanded leafroller setup 0.0
Lesser appleworm setup 0.0
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) setup 1.0
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) setup 0.0
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 2.0 2.0
Dogwood borer setup 0.0 0.0
Peachtree borer setup 0.0 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer setup 0.0 3.0
San Jose scale setup 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Apr 1 Apr 8 Apr 15
Codling moth (Biofix: April 15) biofix
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 137 188 288
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: April 15) biofix

April 8, 2024

blooming apple trees


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 25 Apr 1 Apr 8
Codling moth  setup 0.0
Oriental fruit moth 35.0 100.0 108.5
Tufted apple bud moth setup 0.0
Redbanded leafroller 2.0 1.0 2.0
Obliquebanded leafroller setup
Lesser appleworm setup
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial) setup
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed) setup
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 2.0
Dogwood borer setup 0.0
Peachtree borer setup 0.0
Lesser peachtree borer setup 0.0
San Jose scale setup 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

April 1, 2024

Blooming apple tree


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 18 Mar 25 Apr 1
Codling moth  setup
Oriental fruit moth 27.0 35.0 100.0
Tufted apple bud moth setup
Redbanded leafroller 10.0 2.0 1.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed)
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer setup
Peachtree borer setup
Lesser peachtree borer setup
San Jose scale setup

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Mar 18 Mar 25 Apr 1
Codling moth (Biofix: TBD)
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 31 68 137
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: TBD)

About degree-day models


March 25, 2024

Apple orchard


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 13 Mar 18 Mar 25
Codling moth 
Oriental fruit moth 0.0 27.0 35.0
Tufted apple bud moth
Redbanded leafroller 12.0 10.0 2.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed)
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer
Peachtree borer
Lesser peachtree borer
San Jose scale

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Mar 13 Mar 18 Mar 25
Codling moth (Biofix: TBD)
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 31 68
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: TBD)

About degree-day models


March 18, 2024


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2024 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 8
Mar 13 Mar 18
Codling moth 
Oriental fruit moth 0.0 27.0
Tufted apple bud moth
Redbanded leafroller 12.0 10.0
Obliquebanded leafroller
Lesser appleworm
Apple maggot (abandoned and research orchards)
Brown marmorated stink bug (commercial)
Brown marmorated stink bug (unsprayed)
Spotted tentiform leafminer 0.0 0.0
Dogwood borer
Peachtree borer
Lesser peachtree borer
San Jose scale

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2024 Accumulated Degree Days

HENDERSON COUNTY
Mar 8
Mar 13 Mar 18
Codling moth (Biofix: TBD)
Oriental fruit moth (Biofix: March 15) 31
Tufted apple bud moth (Biofix: TBD)

About degree-day models