WNC Orchard Insect Pest Populations – September 24, 2019

— Written By and last updated by

Insect population trend graphThis will be the last insect report of the year, and appropriately the only insect of concern is BMSB. Bug activity is gradually lowering, with the average trap capture among all apple orchards declining from 10.3 last week to 7.8 bugs per trap this week. While late harvested Granny Smith and Pink Lady are likely still susceptible to damage, the potential for damage will decline considerably over the next one to two weeks as bugs disperse from orchards in search of overwintering sites.

With the exception of BMSB, it’s been a fairly trouble-free year for insects on apples. Most pest populations were of low intensity this year, and in orchards we’ve assessed for insect damage the quality of fruit has been outstanding with minimal damage.

— Jim Walgenbach

Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 9
Sep 16
Sep 23
Codling Moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth 15.7 33.0 9.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 3.0 5.0 1.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 1.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 3.0 0.0 1.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 1.8 1.2 0.6
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 11.4 10.6 7.9
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 13.1 16.3 14.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 45.8 34.7 31.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 0.0 15.0 1.0
Dogwood Borer 2.0 1.0 1.0
Peachtree Borer 17.0 4.0 1.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 35.0 32.0 17.0
San Jose Scale 102.5 130.0 5.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Sep 10
Sep 17
Sep 24
Codling Moth Apr 15 2976 3145 3290
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 3959 4153 4338
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 3616 3811 3995

About degree-day models


2019 Pest Trends (click to enlarge)

Insect population trend graph Insect population trend graph Insect population trend graph Insect population trend graph Insect population trend graph Insect population trend graph Insect population trend graph Insect population trend graph Insect population trend graph Insect population trend graph Insect population trend graph Insect population trend graph Insect population trend graph



PREVIOUS UPDATES

Picture of brown marmorated stink bugs on trapSeptember 17, 2019

At the risk of sounding like a broken record, the brown marmorated stink bug remains a threat to late maturing cultivars. Pheromone trap captures in and around orchards remain high in both the piedmont and mountains. For those apples expected to be harvested in October, one final insecticide application should be considered within the next week or so.

The dispersal of BMSB to overwintering sites, including homes and other man-made buildings, has begun. As the percentage of bugs dispersing to overwintering sites increases, the risk of injury to apples will gradually decline. Typically there is a noticeable increase in BMSB dispersal to buildings around the 21st of September, so the sight of bugs around buildings should become common over the next 10 days or so. Flight activity is most common during sunny, warm days.

We are always interested in collecting BMSB for use in overwintering studies. If you are aware of sites where large numbers of bugs can be easily collected (we mean hundreds or thousands) please call us and we will be glad to collect as many as possible.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 2
Sep 9
Sep 16
Codling Moth 0.7 0.0 0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth 22.8 15.7 33.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 0.0 3.0 5.0
Redbanded Leafroller 1.0 0.0 1.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 0.0 3.0 0.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 5.8 1.8 1.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 6.2 11.4 10.6
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 6.6 13.1 16.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 26.5 45.8 34.7
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 0.0 0.0 15.0
Dogwood Borer 2.0 2.0 1.0
Peachtree Borer 10.0 17.0 4.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 46.0 35.0 32.0
San Jose Scale 27.5 102.5 130.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Sep 2
Sep 10
Sep 17
Codling Moth Apr 15 2792 2976 3145
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 3737 3959 4153
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 3395 3616 3811

About degree-day models


Image of woodsSeptember 10, 2019

Brown marmorated stink bug remains the only insect of concern on apples at this time. However, populations continue to increase in all areas; the overall average bugs per trap in apple orchards in the mountains increased from 6.2 last week to 11.4 this week, and in the piedmont from 6.6 to 13.1. Late cultivar apples, especially Granny Smith and Pink Ladies, remain susceptible to injury. If looking to minimize BMSB damage to these crops, an insecticide application may still be necessary. BMSB populations are expected to remain high for at least a couple more weeks.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 26
Sep 2
Sep 9
Codling Moth 0.3 0.7 0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth 15.3 22.8 15.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 0.0 0.0 3.0
Redbanded Leafroller 4.0 1.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 3.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 8.4 5.8 1.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 2.8 6.2 11.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 5.4 6.6 13.1
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 16.5 26.5 45.8
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood Borer 6.0 2.0 2.0
Peachtree Borer 31.0 10.0 17.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 67.0 46.0 35.0
San Jose Scale 65.0 27.5 102.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Aug 26
Sep 2
Sep 10
Codling Moth Apr 15 2685 2792 2976
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 3601 3737 3959
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 3258 3395 3616

About degree-day models


Picture of high density apple orchardSeptember 2, 2019

Brown marmorated stink bug populations continue to increase in numbers, with the overall average trap capture across all orchards increasing from 3.1 to 6.0 per trap during the past week. This increase is a combination of the last of the first generation nymphs completing development and increased activity of adults as they begin moving to overwintering sites. While adult numbers will remain high for the next few weeks, the potential for damage will gradually decline as a larger percentage of the population focuses on seeking overwintering sites as opposed to feeding on fruit. For those cultivars not expected to be harvested until late September or October, an insecticide should be considered in your next spray.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 19
Aug 26
Sep 2
Codling Moth 1.7 0.3 0.7
Oriental Fruit Moth 16.8 15.3 22.8
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 0.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded Leafroller 6.0 4.0 1.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser Appleworm 1.0 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 10.4 8.4 5.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 3.7 2.8 6.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 4.7 5.4 6.6
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 20.0 16.5 26.5
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood Borer 7.0 6.0 2.0
Peachtree Borer 23.0 31.0 10.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 65.0 67.0 46.0
San Jose Scale 390.0 65.0 27.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Aug 20
Aug 26
Sep 2
Codling Moth Apr 15 2536 2685 2792
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 3417 3601 3737
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 3074 3258 3395

About degree-day models


Picture of wild turkeys in apple orchardAugust 27, 2019

Little has changed during the past week, with brown marmorated stink bug and apple maggot being pests of concern. BMSB trap captures are highly variable among orchards, with trap captures ranging from 0 to about 17 bugs per trap. Among the 26 orchards sampled, 12 have less than 1 bug per trap, 7 had 1 to 3 bugs per trap, and 7 had captures greater than 5 per trap. For cultivars to be harvested after mid September, an insecticide targeting BMSB should be considered the first week of September. Beginning shortly, some BMSB adults will begin their dispersal behavior to overwintering sites, so the potential for damage will gradually decline over the next few weeks.

Apple maggot populations in abandoned orchards remained high during the past week. Orchards adjacent to abandoned sites are at highest risk of damage. See last week’s list of insecticides (scroll down) for activity against BMSB and apple maggot.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 12
Aug 19
Aug 26
Codling Moth 3.7 1.7 0.3
Oriental Fruit Moth 11.5 16.8 15.3
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 1.0 0.0 0.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 6.0 4.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser Appleworm 3.0 1.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 1.4 10.4 8.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 2.5 3.7 2.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 6.1 4.7 5.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 10.2 20.0 16.5
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood Borer 15.0 7.0 6.0
Peachtree Borer 23.0 23.0 31.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 9.0 65.0 67.0
San Jose Scale 145.0 390.0 65.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Aug 13
Aug 20
Aug 26
Codling Moth Apr 15 2358 2536 2685
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 3208 3417 3601
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 2865 3074 3258

About degree-day models


Apples damaged by brown marmorated stink bugAugust 20, 2019

This week’s insects of concern are brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) and apple maggot. Codling moth and OFM populations remain very low in commercial orchards.

BMSB populations continue to increase in Henderson County, and also remain a concern in the piedmont. However, population densities vary considerably among orchards; during the past week trap captures averaged ≤1 per trap in 3 orchards, 1 to 2 per trap in 11 orchards, 2 to 4 per trap in 7 orchards, and >5 per trap in 7 orchards. BMSB is expected to continue to increase for at least the next few weeks in higher elevation orchards.

Apple maggot populations increased dramatically during the past week in our abandoned orchard site, so this insect should not be ignored in those areas that traditionally have problems with this pest.

With harvest underway and insecticidal control still required on several cultivars of apples, preharvest interval should be an important consideration of insecticide choice at this time. Below are insecticides recommended for apple maggot and BMSB, and the preharvest interval (phi) of each.

Active against:
Insecticide BMSB Apple Maggot PHI (days)
Admire X 7
Assail X 7
Belay X 7
Venom/Scorpion X 3
Baythroid X X 7
Brigade/Bifenture X X 14
Danitol X X 14
Mustang Maxx X X 14
Proaxis X X 21
Tombstone X X 7
Warrior/Karate X X 21
Beseige X X 21
Imidan X 7

Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 5
Aug 12
Aug 19
Codling Moth 1.7 3.7 1.7
Oriental Fruit Moth 15.5 11.5 16.8
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 8.0 1.0 0.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 6.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 3.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 3.0 1.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 1.4 1.4 10.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 1.6 2.5 3.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 4.2 6.1 4.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 4.6 10.2 20.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 3.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood Borer 3.0 15.0 7.0
Peachtree Borer 16.0 23.0 23.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 8.0 9.0 65.0
San Jose Scale 0.0 145.0 390.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Aug 5
Aug 13
Aug 20
Codling Moth Apr 15 2187 2358 2536
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 3002 3208 3417
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 2660 2865 3074

About degree-day models


Picture of apples in binsAugust 13, 2019

Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) continues to be the insect that poses the greatest threat to damage of apples. Codling moth and oriental fruit moth populations continue to be low in commercial orchards, and apple maggot trap captures declined in Henderson County for the first time in three weeks.

The number of BMSB captured in pheromone traps increased slightly during the past week in Henderson County, from an average of 1.6 to 2.5 bugs per trap. In lower elevation piedmont/foothill orchards, the number increased from 4.2 to 6.1 bugs per trap, and on the research station at Mills River trap captures averaged 10.2 bugs/trap. Among the 26 orchards in Henderson County with monitoring traps, average per-trap capture varied from 0.3 to 7.5 bugs per trap, with an overall average of 2.5. Hence, population densities vary considerably from orchard to orchard. With that said, we expect populations to continue to increase in higher elevation orchards over the next couple of weeks, so a preventive insecticide application (14-day interval) is recommended for apples to be harvested after September 1.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jul 29
Aug 5
Aug 12
Codling Moth 1.3 1.7 3.7
Oriental Fruit Moth 10.3 15.5 11.5
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 2.0 8.0 1.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 1.0 3.0 0.0
Lesser Appleworm 1.0 0.0 3.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 1.2 1.4 1.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 1.8 1.6 2.5
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 2.7 4.2 6.1
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 5.2 4.6 10.2
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 4.0 3.0 0.0
Dogwood Borer 17.0 3.0 15.0
Peachtree Borer 40.0 16.0 23.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 3.0 8.0 9.0
San Jose Scale 0.0 0.0 145.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Jul 30
Aug 5
Aug 13
Codling Moth Apr 15 2026 2187 2358
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 2806 3002 3208
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 2464 2660 2865

About degree-day models


Picture of appleAugust 6, 2019

Key insects of concern this week including brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) and apple maggot. While we are observing typical late-season OFM increases on the research station, populations are quite low in most commercial orchards. Based on degree-day accumulations, codling moth is at the tail end of second generation flight in the mountains, and at early stage egg hatch of the third generation in the piedmont region. However, first and second generation codling moth populations have been so low that the potential for damage by the third generation is very low.

BMSB pheromone trap captures continue to be high in the piedmont, indicating that a large first generation adult population continues to be present in that region. Surprisingly, trap captures did not increase in Henderson County orchards as expected. Based on degree-day accumulations, first generation adult emergence is underway, so it is assumed that overall populations are considerably lower in the mountains compared to piedmont locations. Nonetheless, insecticide sprays targeting BMSB would be wise at this time, particularly on the most susceptible varieties.

Apple maggot trap captures remain at moderate intensities at our abandoned site in Henderson County, but are virtually 0 at the Research Station and commercial orchards. Hence, those orchards near abandoned sites are likely at greatest risk of damage. If using a pyrethroid for BMSB control at this time, that will also control apple maggot.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jul 23
Jul 29
Aug 5
Codling Moth 2.3 1.3 1.7
Oriental Fruit Moth 16.5 10.3 15.5
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 5.0 2.0 8.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 4.0 1.0 3.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 1.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 0.2 1.2 1.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 1.6 1.8 1.6
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 2.9 2.7 4.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 1.7 5.2 4.6
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 6.0 4.0 3.0
Dogwood Borer 7.0 17.0 3.0
Peachtree Borer 13.0 40.0 16.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 6.0 3.0 8.0
San Jose Scale 7.5 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Jul 23
Jul 30
Aug 5
Codling Moth Apr 15 1897 2026 2187
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 2642 2806 3002
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 2299 2464 2660

About degree-day models


2017 apple field day tourJuly 30, 2019

At this time the two major insect pests of concern are the brown marmorated stink bug and the apple maggot. Overall insect pressure from other pests, including codling moth and OFM, is quite low based on pheromone trap captures and minimal damage observed in commercial orchards.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB):  In the piedmont, first generation adults have been active for several weeks, so insecticide applications targeting this pest should have been applied by this time. Two applications at 14-day intervals are generally sufficient in most situations, but an additional spray may be necessary on highly sensitive varieties such as Granny Smith and Pink Lady.

In higher elevations such as Henderson County, BMSB pheromone trap captures did increase slightly this past week, but numbers were considerably lower than expected in the majority of orchards. However, after reviewing egg laying patterns of overwintering BMSB this spring, egg laying did not occur in significant numbers until about 21 May, which means that those individuals will complete development to the adult stage this week. Development from egg to adult requires about 540 DD (Celsius), which at the MHCRS in Henderson County occurred on Sunday (7/28). Hence, this emergence should be reflected in higher pheromone trap captures next week. If they do not, one can only assume numbers are relatively low this year.

This does complicate the decision as to whether or not insecticides should be applied for BMSB at this time in the mountains. In the absence of increased pheromone trap captures it is difficult to recommend applying an insecticide. The need for a BMSB spray is expected to be most important next week, so for those spraying this week, it may be wise to focus on on those varieties preferred by BMSB (e.g., Granny Smith and Pink Lady), and hold off spraying other varieties until the next spray. With rain and humidity expected to return this week, shortened spray intervals for diseases should allow for more timely applications of insecticides for BMSB.

Apple Maggot: A significant capture of apple maggot flies on traps occurred in our abandoned orchard site this week, although only 6 flies/trap is not a high number. None were captured on the research station or in commercial orchards. Emergence of flies in abandoned orchards can be used as an early warning that nearby orchards may be susceptible to infestation in the next 7 to 10 days. Fortunately, pyrethroids recommended for BMSB will also control apple maggot, so the coincidental emergence of BMSB and apple maggot is fortuitous. In situations where insecticides will not be applied for BMSB but where apple maggot is a concern, imidacloprid (Admire Pro and generics) is an effective option and only has a 7-day PHI. It should be noted that apple maggot populations vary considerably among orchards, and trapping in individual orchards allows for the more judicious use of insecticides.

Finally, remember that the MHCRS will be hosting an Apple Field Day this Thursday (Aug 1, 2019) from 11:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jul 15
Jul 23
Jul 29
Codling Moth 3.8 2.3 1.3
Oriental Fruit Moth 7.8 16.5 10.3
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 5.0 5.0 2.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 2.0 4.0 1.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0 1.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 0.2 0.2 1.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 1.6 1.6 1.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 5.6 2.9 2.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 2.5 1.7 5.2
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 25.0 6.0 4.0
Dogwood Borer 20.0 7.0 17.0
Peachtree Borer 50.0 13.0 40.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 21.0 6.0 3.0
San Jose Scale 57.5 7.5 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Jul 15
Jul 23
Jul 30
Codling Moth Apr 15 1750 1897 2026
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 2465 2642 2806
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 2122 2299 2464

About degree-day models


Brown marmorated stink bug nymphJuly 23, 2019

Overall, insect pressure is fairly low throughout the region. Codling moth and oriental fruit moth populations are very low, and first generation brown marmorated stink bug adults are active only in piedmont regions, not yet in the mountains. Also, there has been no evidence of a large emergence of apple maggot as of yet.

Second generation codling moth flight is completed in lower elevation piedmont orchards, and is nearly complete in mountain production areas (≥2000 ft elevation). Degree-day accumulations in Henderson County are about 1900 as of July 22, which coincides with emergence of about 90% of second generation adults. This information, combined with very low pheromone trap captures, suggests that the potential for damage is extremely low.

Third generation oriental fruit moth adults are beginning to emerge in mountain locations, but populations generally have been low to date. Pheromone trap captures provide valuable information on the activity of this pest in individual orchards, because population density can be highly variable even among nearby orchards.

First generation brown marmorated stink bug began emergence a little over two weeks ago,  and this will continue for a few more weeks. While population densities can vary considerably among locations, this is a potentially critical time for damage in piedmont locaitons.

In the higher elevation mountain counties, first generation BMSB emergence should be in the very early stages, but to date pheromone trap captures have not yet detected this emergence. The main egg laying period for the overwintering generation of BMSB adults began in early June, so based on degree-day accumulations I anticipate a large uptick in trap captures in another 7 to 10 days.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jul 8
Jul 15
Jul 23
Codling Moth 1.0 3.8 2.3
Oriental Fruit Moth 5.0 7.8 16.5
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 2.0 5.0 5.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 1.0 2.0 4.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 0.0 0.2 0.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 0.9 1.6 1.6
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 6.6 5.6 2.9
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 1.3 2.5 1.7
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 38.0 25.0 6.0
Dogwood Borer 18.0 20.0 7.0
Peachtree Borer 31.0 50.0 13.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 27.0 21.0 6.0
San Jose Scale 330.0 57.5 7.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Jul 8
Jul 15
Jul 23
Codling Moth Apr 15 1499 1750 1897
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 2169 2465 2642
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 1827 2122 2299

About degree-day models


apples in orchardJuly 15, 2019

Codling Moth: In Henderson County and other locations ≥2000 ft elevation, codling moth DD accumulations are about 1700, which coincides with emergence of about 75% of second-generation adults and 35% egg hatch. For those not using mating disruption and who are not using pheromone traps to monitor coding moth, this is an important time for insecticidal control. In orchards monitoring for codling moth and where trap captures have remained low throughout this period, only one insecticide application targeting the second generation is necessary. Insecticides targeting codling moth in orchards using mating disruption are only necessary if pheromone trap captures indicate they are needed – a threshold of an average cumulative trap capture of 3 moths over a two to three week period has worked well to minimize insecticide applications without risk of injury.

In lower elevation orchards (<1000 ft evelation), second-generation codling moth flight is nearly complete. Degree-day accumulations are 2150, which coincides with >95% adult emergence and completion of almost 80% egg hatch. The need for additional insecticide sprays targeting codling moth in these orchards is very low, especially in orchards that have not yet seen damage up to this point in time.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: At lower elevation orchards in the piedmont, emergence of first-generation adult pheromone trap captures remains high, and this is an important time for insecticidal control of BMSB.

In mountain locations, first-generation adult emergence has not yet begun. A total of about 495 DD have accumulated since initial egg hatch in mid-May, and adult emergence is not expected to begin until about 540 DD, which will likely occur next weekend. We will continue to follow pheromone trap captures to detect first-generation emergence, but it currently appears that will be when insecticidal control may be necessary.

Other Potential Pest: There have been a few reports of woolly apple aphid infestations. Control of WAA within season is very difficult, with Diazinon 50WP being about the only product that provides reliable knockdown of this pest. However, only the 50W formulation is registered on apples, and it has a 21 day preharvest interval (PHI) and a 4-day re-entry interval (REI). In many situations the parasite Aphelinus mali reduces mid to late-season populations more quickly than insecticides. Parasitized aphids can be recognized by their black opposed to reddish color.

Apple maggot populations remain low at all monitoring sites this week.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jul 1
Jul 8
Jul 15
Codling Moth 2.0 1.0 3.8
Oriental Fruit Moth 10.0 5.0 7.8
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 0.0 2.0 5.0
Redbanded Leafroller 4.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 0.0 1.0 2.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 0.2 0.0 0.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 0.6 0.9 1.6
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 2.6 6.6 5.6
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 0.7 1.3 2.5
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 18.0 38.0 25.0
Dogwood Borer 12.0 18.0 20.0
Peachtree Borer 34.0 31.0 50.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 39.0 27.0 21.0
San Jose Scale 781.0 330.0 57.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Jul 1
Jul 8
Jul 15
Codling Moth Apr 15 1344 1499 1750
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 1983 2169 2465
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 1641 1827 2122

About degree-day models


brown marmorated stink bug on appleJuly 9, 2019

Codling moth and brown marmorated stink bug remain the insects of concern at this time, with codling moth of greater concern at higher elevations (>2000 ft) and BMSB of greater concern at lower elevations in the piedmont.

Codling Moth:  In elevations >2000 ft (e.g., Henderson County) codling moth degree-day accumulations are about 1500, which coincides with about 15% egg hatch of the second generation. This generation will remain a potential threat for possibly two more weeks, although overall populations have been very low.

In Cleveland County (elevation of about 840 ft), codling moth DD accumulations average about 1920, which coincides with 68% egg hatch of the second generation. Second generation flight is predicted to be complete in another 10 days or so.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug:  In Cleveland County, a total of 610 BMSB DD have accumulated since the first egg hatch in early May. Second generation adults were predicted to begin emerging on July 5, and the increase in pheromone trap captures in Cleveland County this past week (mean of 6.6 versus 2.6 last week) indicates that first generation adult emergence is underway in the piedmont. This is an important time for BMSB control in lower elevation orchards.

In Henderson County, first generation adults have not yet emerged, with DD accumulations only at 431. The fact that pheromone trap captures have not changed from last week (mean capture still is less than 1 bug per trap) further indicates adult emergence has not yet begun. Based on weather forecasts, emergence (i.e., 540 DD accumulations) is predicted to begin on July 20, so protection against BMSB will be most important beginning the week of July 21.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 24
Jul 1
July 8
Codling Moth 1.0 2.0 1.0
Oriental Fruit Moth 9.5 10.0 5.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 1.0 0.0 2.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 4.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 5.0 0.0 1.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 0.4 0.2 0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 0.8 0.6 0.9
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 1.4 2.6 6.6
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 2.0 0.7 1.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 28.0 18.0 38.0
Dogwood Borer 11.0 12.0 18.0
Peachtree Borer 17.0 34.0 31.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 11.0 39.0 27.0
San Jose Scale 405.0 781.0 330.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Jun 24
Jul 1
Jul 8
Codling Moth Apr 15 1156 1344 1499
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 1755 1983 2169
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 1413 1413 1827

About degree-day models


Image of an appleJuly 2, 2019

The insect pests of primary concern at this time are second generation codling moth and first generation brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), but the need for insecticidal control is dependent on location (i.e., mountain versus piedmont locations).

Codling Moth: In higher elevation orchards such as Henderson County and other locations >2000 ft., codling moth degree day (DD) accumulations since biofix are about 1350 DD, compared to about 1720 DD in Cleveland County. The ideal timing for an insecticide against second generation codling moth in orchards NOT using mating disruption is about 1450 DD. Based on predicted temperatures, 1450 DD in Henderson County will occur on Saturday or Sunday (July 6 or 7). Hence, it would probably be wise to include an insecticide against codling moth in your next spray, especially if spraying is occurring at 14-day intervals. If an effective insecticide application against codling moth has not yet been made in lower elevation orchards, one should be made as soon as possible.

In orchards using mating disruption for codling moth, there is usually no need to apply an insecticide against the second generation. Additionally, in orchards not using mating disruption, but which have very low codling moth populations (based on low pheromone trap captures and no evidence of damage by the first generation), a codling moth insecticide can be delayed until trap captures reach 3 to 5 moths/week.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: The greatest threat of BMSB damage to apples is by first generation adults, which generally emerge in mid July and early August in piedmont and mountain areas, respectively. The timing of emergence can be predicted quite accurately by knowing when eggs were first laid by overwintering adults. By caging overwintering adults, we were able to detect first egg laying on May 7 in the piedmont and May 15 in Henderson County. Development from egg to adult requires 540 cumulative DD, and as of today total DD accumulations are 524 in the Piedmont (Cleveland County) and 356 in the Mountains (Henderson County). Based on temperature forecasts, 540 DD is predicted to occur on July 5 in Cleveland County and July 23 in Henderson County.

Hence, a spray for BMSB in piedmont locations should be considered later this week or next week. In the mountains, there should be no need for BMSB sprays for at least 3 weeks.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 17 Jun 24
July 1
Codling Moth 1.3 1.0 2.0
Oriental Fruit Moth 16.0 9.5 10.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 3.0 1.0 0.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 4.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 6.0 5.0 0.0
Lesser Appleworm 1.0 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 0.0  0.4 0.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 0.5 0.8 0.6
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 1.4 1.4 2.6
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 1.7 2.0 0.7
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 0.0 28.0 18.0
Dogwood Borer 11.0 11.0 12.0
Peachtree Borer 10.0 17.0 34.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 55.0 11.0 39.0
San Jose Scale 0.0 405.0 781.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Jun 17
Jun 24
July 1
Codling Moth Apr 15 1020 1156 1344
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 1590 1755 1983
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 1247 1413 1641

About degree-day models


June 25, 2019

Picture of apples in orchardIn piedmont locations (e.g., Cleveland County), codling moth DD accumulations are about 1400 as of today. This timing coincides with predicted first egg hatch of the second codling moth generation. Hence, in these lower elevation orchards an insecticide effective against codling moth is recommended at the next spray. However, if pheromone trap captures remain low during this time, this application can be delayed for another week or so.

In Henderson County, codling moth DD accumulations average only about 1200 as of today, and it will likely be another 10 to 14 days before second generation flight is underway. In a survey of several orchards on Tuesday, fruit generally look very clean with no evidence of internal worm damage.

Brown marmorated stink bug pheromone trap captures remain steady in both the mountains and piedmont locations, averaging about 0.8 and 1.4 bugs per trap, respectively. The greatest incidence of damage is associated with first generation adults, which are expected to begin emerging in piedmont locations in about two weeks. Emergence at higher elevations (≥2000 ft) occurs about two weeks later, in late July to early August.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 10
Jun 17
Jun 24
Codling Moth 1.3 1.3 1.0
Oriental Fruit Moth 8.8 16.0 9.5
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 3.0 3.0 1.0
Redbanded Leafroller 2.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 18.0 6.0 5.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 1.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 0.0  0.0 0.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 0.4 0.5 0.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 3.1 1.4 1.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 0.5 1.7 2.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 25.0 0.0 28.0
Dogwood Borer 41.0 11.0 11.0
Peachtree Borer 6.0 10.0 17.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 40.0 55.0 11.0
San Jose Scale 0.0 0.0 405.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Jun 10
Jun 17
Jun 24
Codling Moth Apr 15 881 1020 1156
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 1411 1590 1755
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 1069 1247 1413

About degree-day models


June 18, 2019

Picture of apple orchardAt elevations greater than 2000 ft, such as Henderson County, the insect situation has not changed from last week. We remain in that timeframe where the threat of damage by direct pests such as codling moth, OFM, apple maggot and brown marmorated stink bug are at their lowest level. This low-threat period is expected to last for another two weeks, when second generation codling moth emergence is expected to begin.

Off the mountain in lower elevation piedmont sites, codling moth degree-day accumulations are at about 1330. Depending on pheromone trap captures and occurrence of damage by first generation codling moth, an insecticide spray against the second generation is recommended between about 1450 to 1550 DD; 1450 in orchards with moderate pest density (e.g., trap captures exceed 3 to 5 moths per trap per week) and 1550 in orchards with low pest density (e.g., trap captures are less than 2 to 3 moths per week). These timings are predicted to occur later this week to early next week.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Jun 4
Jun 10
Jun 17
Codling Moth 1.3 1.3 1.3
Oriental Fruit Moth 14.8 8.8 16.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 14.0 3.0 3.0
Redbanded Leafroller 2.0 2.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 12.0 18.0 6.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0 1.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research) 0.0  0.0 0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 1.8 0.4 0.5
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 4.2 3.1 1.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 0.3 0.5 1.7
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 11.0 25.0 0.0
Dogwood Borer 46.0 41.0 11.0
Peachtree Borer 4.0 6.0 10.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 24.0 40.0 55.0
San Jose Scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Jun 4 Jun 10
Jun 17
Codling Moth Apr 15 761 881 1020
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 1261 1411 1590
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 919 1069 1247

About degree-day models


June 11, 2019

picture of applesWe are at the time when the threat of damage by direct insect pests is at the expected lowest point of the year. First generation codling moth is now complete, and second generation OFM populations are (as typical) very low. In Henderson County, brown marmorated stink bug pheromone trap captures have declined to less than 1 per trap. There remain some BMSB hotspots, particularly in the lower-elevation piedmont areas. BMSB populations have been considerably higher at all piedmont versus mountain trapping sites this year.

Pests that are the most likely to require insecticidal control are the same as those mentioned last week – potato leafhopper, aphids and European red mite.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 28
Jun 4
Jun 10
Codling Moth 3.7 1.3 1.3
Oriental Fruit Moth 12.3 14.8 8.8
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 112.0 14.0 3.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 2.0 2.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 7.0 12.0 18.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)  0.0 0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 3.0 1.8 0.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 4.1 4.2 3.1
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 2.3 0.3 0.5
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 44.0 11.0 25.0
Dogwood Borer 14.0 46.0 41.0
Peachtree Borer 2.0 4.0 6.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 37.0 24.0 40.0
San Jose Scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix May 28 Jun 4 Jun 10
Codling Moth Apr 15 620 761 881
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 1089 1261 1411
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 747 919 1069

About degree-day models


June 4, 2019

MPicture of irrigation pond in apple orchardost areas are now at that time when the need for control of direct pests (i.e., codling moth, OFM, and TABM) is declining and greater attention should be directed to secondary pests, such as aphids, leafhoppers and mites.

With codling moth degree-day accumulations at 761 in Henderson County, we are on the tail end of first generation egg hatch. In lower elevations with higher temperatures DD accumulations exceed 1000, and first generation egg hatch has completed. Additional insecticide sprays for first generation codling moth are only needed in problem orchards where pheromone trap captures remain high.

In those locations where an insecticide effective against tufted apple bud moth has not been applied within the last 10 to 14 days, the window of opportunity to control this pest will disappear in about a week. TABM DD accumulations are at 919 in Henderson County.

Second generation oriental fruit moth flight is beginning or underway throughout the area, but this generation is historically very low and usually does not require insecticidal control where insecticides were targeted for this pest at petal fall, or where mating disruption is being used. However, pheromone trap captures should be the final basis of the need for control.

Brown marmorated stink bug populations have declined from an average of about 3.0 last week to 2.0 per trap this week. As the overwintered adult population declines, the threat for damage to apples is expected to be low until first generation adults emerge in four to six weeks, depending on elevation.

Apple aphids and potato leafhoppers are increasing throughout the region. Most neonicotinoid insecticides, as well as Beleaf, will provide excellent control of these pests. For those concerned about impacts on pollinators, insecticides least harmful to bees include Assail, Sivanto Prime, Versys, and Beleaf.

Finally, there are reports of European red mite populations requiring control in many orchards. Expect ERM to remain a potential threat through at least June.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 20
May 28
Jun 4
Codling Moth 2.0 3.7 1.3
Oriental Fruit Moth 2.7 12.3 14.8
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 39.0 112.0 14.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 2.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 2.0 7.0 12.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)   0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 2.1 3.0 1.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 1.7 4.1 4.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 1.3 2.3 0.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 0.0 44.0 11.0
Dogwood Borer 4.0 14.0 46.0
Peachtree Borer 0.0 2.0 4.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 64.0 37.0 24.0
San Jose Scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix May 21
May 28
Jun 4
Codling Moth Apr 15 448 620 761
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 882 1089 1261
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 540 747 919

About degree-day models

May 28, 2019

InPicture of apple orchardsect activity is beginning to increase with the warm, dry conditions. Insects of potential concern including codling moth, tufted apple bud moth, brown marmorated stink bug, and leafhoppers and aphids. See the table at the end of this report for insecticide recommendations for these insects.

In the mountains at about 2100 ft elevation (i.e., Henderson County),  codling moth degree day (DD) accumulations since biofix are at about 620, which coincides with almost 90% emergence of first generation codling moth adults and about 45% egg hatch. With warm temperatures in the forecast, the major part of first generation flight and egg laying should be complete in the next week or so. Off the mountain, where DD accumulations are at about 875 to 900, first generation flight is complete, and no further sprays should be necessary in most orchards; the exception being those orchards with historically high populations or where moths are continuing to be caught in significant numbers in pheromone traps.

Tufted apple bud moth DD accumulations range from about 700 in higher elevations to >900 in piedmont production areas. This is the ideal timing for an insecticide application to control this pest. In addition to insecticides recommended for codling moth (e.g., Altacor and Delegate), Intrepid is also an excellent product for TABM.

Brown marmorated stink bug pheromone trap captures continued to increase during the past week at most of our monitoring sites, increasing from an average of 2.0 last week to 3.8 this week. This trap increase represents increased activity of overwintering bugs, not first generation bugs, so a single insecticide application should be sufficient to suppress this infestation. Where codling moth and/or TABM also require control, a tank mix of two products or a premix  is recommended (see table of recommendations below). It should be noted that with warm, dry conditions expected for the near future, it would be better to use a neonicotinoid rather than pyrethroid active ingredient for BMSB control at this time of the year, as the pyrethroids will likely aggravate European red mite populations.

Finally, aphids and leafhoppers are finally appearing. Insecticides recommended for BMSB will also control these insects.

Recommendations for Control of Insect Pests of Apple
+++ = excellent, ++ = good, + = fair, – = no activity
Insecticide Codling Moth TABM BMSB Aphids, leafhoppers
Altacor +++ +++
Delegate +++ +++
Intrepid ++ +++
Actara +++ +++
Admire + +++
Belay +++ +++
*Pyrethroids + +++ +++ +++
†Voliam Flexi +++ +++ +++ +++
*†Besiege +++ +++ +++ +++
*Products containing pyrethroids are likely to lead to increased problems with European red mite.
†Voliam Flexi and Besiege are both premixes, containing two active ingredients. Voliam Flexi is a mix of chlorantraniliprole (A.I. in Altacor) plus thiamethoxam (A.I. in Actara), while Besiege is a mix of chlorantraniliprole plus lambda-cyhalothrin (A.I. in Warrior and Karate).

Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 13
May 20
May 28
Codling Moth 1.7 2.0 3.7
Oriental Fruit Moth 6.7 2.7 12.3
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 90.0 39.0 112.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 1.0 2.0 7.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)  
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 0.6 2.1 3.0**
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 1.7 1.7 4.1
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 0.7 1.3 2.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 0.0 0.0 44.0
Dogwood Borer 7.0 4.0 14.0
Peachtree Borer 0.0 0.0 2.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 21.0 64.0 37.0
San Jose Scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

**Corrected from original posting.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix May 14
May 21
May 28
Codling Moth Apr 15 377 448 620
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 760 882 1089
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 417 540 747

About degree-day models


May 21, 2019

Picture of irrigation pond by apple orchardThe insect situation has not appreciably changed since last week. Codling moth remains the key pest of concern throughout the region. Cumulative degree-days range from about 445 in Henderson County to about 656 in Cleveland County, which indicates we are in the midst of first generation egg laying. Overall, populations have been quite low throughout the area. With unseasonably warm weather forecast for the next few weeks, first generation flight should be completed much sooner than normal;  the main period of activity should be complete in about a week in lower elevations such as Cleveland County, and about two weeks in Henderson County.

The warm spring has also accelerated tufted apple bud moth development, with about 550 DD accumulated since biofix in Henderson County. A single insecticide spray made between about 700 and 1200 DD will provide season-long control of TABM. Insecticides of choice include Altacor, Delegate, and Intrepid, all of which are highly effective against this pest.

Brown marmorated stink bug pheromone trap captures increased this week across the area, increasing from an average of 0.7 last week to 2.0 this week. Whether this increase justifies an insecticide application is debatable. We are currently testing a preliminary threshold level of 4 cumulative bugs per trap, and based on averages across all orchards we are currently at about 3, so from this perspective one may want to wait until next week to see if numbers still increase. The need for BMSB control in orchards this early in the season is unusual. Last year at this time trap captures were slightly higher than now, and damage was minimal despite few insecticide sprays being made.

The anticipated stretch of hot dry weather should make conditions ideal for European red mite outbreaks, so it would be wise to begin scouting at this time. Surprisingly there have been very few aphids or leafhoppers observed to date. However, it is usually late May to early June when these insects appear, so anticipate these pests in the next two weeks.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 6
May 13
May 20
Codling Moth 4.0 1.7 2.0
Oriental Fruit Moth 26.3 6.7 2.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 37.0 90.0 39.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 0.0 1.0 2.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)  
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 1.0 0.6 2.1
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 3.3 1.7 1.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 0.5 0.7 1.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood Borer 0.0 7.0 4.0
Peachtree Borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 112.0 21.0 64.0
San Jose Scale 2.5 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix May 7
May 14
May 21
Codling Moth Apr 15 260 377 448
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 632 760 882
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 290 417 540

About degree-day models


May 14, 2019

Codling Moth:  We remain in the timeframe when codling moth is the key insect of concern in apples. Degree-day accumulations since biofix range from about 360 in Henderson County (2100 ft elevation) to about 550 in Cleveland County (850 ft). First generation codling moth can remain active through about 600 to 800 DD, depending on population density. Generally, the higher the population the later activity declines.

In locations of about 2000 ft elevation, 350 DD coincides with the optimum timing for the first of either one or two applications against the first generation. A second application is recommended in another two to three weeks, at which time a spray for tufted apple bud moth is also recommended.

In lower elevations, where DD accumulations average about 550, a final spray for first generation codling moth in orchards with low to moderate populations is recommended at this time. This will also coincide with tufted apple bud moth (TABM) in these locations.

It should be noted that the above are general recommendations for orchards that are not using mating disruption. The number of sprays required will vary depending on the intensity of populations, and the only way to know population intensity is with the use of pheromone traps (See the article from April 10 on pheromone trapping). In some instances only one insecticide spray will be necessary, while in orchards with high populations as many as 3 or 4 applications may be necessary.

As in past years, Altacor and Delegate remain the most effective insecticides against codling moth, and whichever product is used against the first generation should NOT be used against the second generation in July – it is necessary to alternate insecticides against generations. Also, for those orchards with very low codling moth populations and where only one application may be necessary, you may want to consider Intrepid for a second application where TABM control is also necessary,  Intrepid is an excellent product for control of TABM, but should not be relied upon for control of moderate to high codling moth populations.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug:  Much of the BMSB population has emerged from overwintering sites, and emergence is expected to be complete in the next week or two. To date populations have been relatively low, averaging less than one per trap across the region. Beginning next week we will provide degree-day accumulations for BMSB and estimates of when first generation adult emergence is expected. While things can always change, at this time we do not expect action will be necessary against this pest until July (Piedmont) or August (mountains).


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 29
May 6
May 13
Codling Moth 4.5 4.0 1.7
Oriental Fruit Moth 67.5 26.3 6.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 15.0 37.0 90.0
Redbanded Leafroller 1.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 0.0 1.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)  
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 1.4 1.0 0.6
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 3.7 3.3 1.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 1.0 0.5 0.7
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood Borer 0.0 7.0
Peachtree Borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 58.0 112.0 21.0
San Jose Scale 0.0 2.5 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Apr 29
May 7
May 14
Codling Moth Apr 15 133 260 377
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 466 632 760
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 124 290 417

About degree-day models


May 7, 2019

Codling moth adultCodling Moth:  The major insect of concern at this time is the codling moth. Degree-day accumulation in the mountains at about 2100 ft elevation was 260 as of May 6, and in the piedmont at an elevation of 900 ft, it was 400.

In orchards with moderate to high populations of codling moth, first generation egg hatch begins at about 250 DD, so in those orchards an insecticide effective against codling moth should already have been made. In orchards with low populations – i.e., none or very low damage last year and no more than about 2 moths captured in pheromone traps during the past week – waiting until about 350 DD for an initial application is most efficient. In the mountains this is predicted to occur early next week, and in piedmont orchards we are beyond that point.

Remember, the above predictions are for orchards NOT using mating disruption. Where mating disruption is being used for codling moth and OFM, an insecticide is not recommended until tufted apple bud moth cumulative degree days reach 600 to 800.

European Red Mite Sighting:  There have been reports of European red mite showing up on apples this week in Henderson County. In the past 20 years, this is only the second time I am aware of ERM appearing this early in the season. This is unusually early, and probably reflects the more widespread use of pyrethroids in recent years. Hence, in those orchards that did not use a preventive miticide application (e.g., Agri-Mek, Zeal, Apollo, Savey or Envidor), it would be wise to check your most mite-susceptible blocks.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 22
Apr 29
May 6
Codling Moth 4.0 4.5 4.0
Oriental Fruit Moth 61.0 67.5 26.3
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 3.0 15.0 37.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 1.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller 0.0
Lesser Appleworm 0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 1.4 1.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 3.7 3.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 0.0 1.0 0.5
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dogwood Borer 0.0
Peachtree Borer 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 5.0 58.0 112.0
San Jose Scale 0.0 0.0 2.5

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Apr 22
Apr 30
May 7
Codling Moth Apr 15 45 133 260
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 348 466 632
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 18 124 290

About degree-day models


April 30, 2019Image of apple orchard

By now petal fall applications have been made in most locations except for the highest elevation orchards (e.g., ≥3000 feet), and attention can now move to other pests – especially the codling moth.

Codling Moth:  Codling moth biofix date in Henderson County (elevation about 2100 ft) occurred on 15 April. Typically biofix occurs about a week earlier off the mountain in Cleveland and Lincoln Counties (about 900ft), and is estimated to have occurred on 8 April. Codling moth egg hatch begins at about 250 cumulative degree days (DD), which is the recommended timing of first insecticide applications in orchards with moderate to high populations. For orchards with low populations, which is the more common situation, the initial timing can be delayed to about 350 DD.

In Henderson County we are currently at about 133 DD, and 250 DD is estimated to occur next Monday (May 6) and 350 DD on May 11. Off the mountain at an elevation of about 900 ft (Cleveland/Lincoln County), we are currently at about 300 DD and 350 is predicted for later this week on Friday or Saturday (May 3 or 4).

In orchards using mating disruption and where pheromone trap captures remain low, insecticides for codling moth are not necessary at this time. In most situations with mating disruption a single insecticide application against the first generation codling moth is not recommended until about 600-700 DD have accumulated, which coincides with the optimum timing of first generation tufted apple bud moth (TABM).

Regarding insecticides recommended for codling moth, they remain Altacor (3 oz/A) and Delegate (6 oz/A). One product should be used for all first-generation applications, and the other product against the second generation in July.

San Jose Scale:  For those that are concerned about San Jose scale and have not yet applied an insecticide effective against this pest, anytime within the next two weeks is ideal timing for application of either Esteem or Centaur, both of which provide excellent control when used at this time.

Another option is use of Movento, which can also provide suppression of woolly apple aphid (WAA) later in the season. The systemic activity of Movento, which is unique in that it moves in both directions in the tree (leaf to leaf, and leaf to roots), is key to preventive control of WAA. It should be noted, however, that WAA is a sporadic pest and often does not develop to pest status. If using Movento, it is important to read the label to ensure proper use. It must be used with an adjuvant with spreading and penetrating properties to maximize leaf uptake for systemic activity. However, DO NOT use Induce, due to compatibility issues.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 15
Apr 22
Apr 29
Codling Moth 1.5 4.0 4.5
Oriental Fruit Moth 101.5 61.0 67.5
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 3.0 15.0
Redbanded Leafroller 0.0 0.0 1.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
Lesser Appleworm
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains) 1.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont) 3.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 0.2 0.0 1.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer n/a 0.0 0.0
Dogwood Borer
Peachtree Borer 0.0 0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 5.0 58.0
San Jose Scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Apr 15
Apr 22
Apr 30
Codling Moth Apr 15 45 133
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 282 348 466
Tufted Apple Bud Moth Apr 20 18 124

About degree-day models


April 23, 2019Apple orchard in spring


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 8 Apr 15
Apr 22
Codling Moth 0.0 1.5 4.0
Oriental Fruit Moth 55.0 101.5 61.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth 3.0
Redbanded Leafroller 7.0 0.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
Lesser Appleworm
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont)
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 0.2 0.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 3.0 n/a 0.0
Dogwood Borer
Peachtree Borer 0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer 5.0
San Jose Scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Apr 7
Apr 15
Apr 23
Codling Moth Apr 15 45
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 151 282 348
Tufted Apple Bud Moth

About degree-day models


April 16, 2019Bee on apple flower


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 1 Apr 8
Apr 15
Codling Moth 0.0 0.0 1.5
Oriental Fruit Moth 1.0 55.0 101.5
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
Redbanded Leafroller 17.0 7.0 0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
Lesser Appleworm
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont)
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed) 0.2
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 2.0 3.0 n/a
Dogwood Borer
Peachtree Borer
Lesser Peachtree Borer
San Jose Scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Apr 1
Apr 7
Apr 15
Codling Moth
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 87 151 281.5
Tufted Apple Bud Moth

About degree-day models


April 8, 2019picture of apple blossoms


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2019 Average Weekly Trap Captures

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 25 Apr 1 Apr 8
Codling Moth set 0.0 0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth 1.0 1.0 55.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
Redbanded Leafroller 14.0 17.0 7.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
Lesser Appleworm
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper Piedmont)
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 0.0 2.0 3.0
Dogwood Borer
Peachtree Borer
Lesser Peachtree Borer
San Jose Scale 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Note that these averages illustrate only the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in populations, and are not representative of population levels in any given orchard. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.


2019 Accumulated Degree Days

  Henderson County
 Biofix Mar 25 Apr 1 Apr 7
Codling Moth
Oriental Fruit Moth Mar 16 41 87 151
Tufted Apple Bud Moth