NC State Extension

WNC Orchard Insect Populations


October 16, 2018Apples in bins

The final summary for 2018 was posted September 11. Trap counts will be updated through the end of the season and previous weeks’ summaries are archived farther down this page.

HOWEVER, if anyone comes across large numbers of BMSB adults congregating on homes, sheds, or vehicles in the coming weeks, or if you hear about large numbers of bugs occurring somewhere else, please get in contact with either Jim (828-684-3562)  or Steve (828-713-4000). By large numbers, we’re talking about hundreds to thousands. We’re always looking for good collection sites, and willing to travel on short notice to collect.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Oct 1
Oct 8
Oct 15
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
2.0
2.3
0.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
1.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
1.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
2.9
2.8
0.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
8.2
12.3
5.9
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
1.0
2.2
0.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
5.0
4.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
1.0
0.0
0.0
Peachtree Borer
0.5
0.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
San Jose Scale
32.5
45.0
2.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
Oct 2
Oct 9
Oct 16
Codling Moth
Apr 30
3398
3552
3644
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
4402
4591
4718
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
4083
4271
4398

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


2018 Pest Trends (click to enlarge)

Codling moth population trend graph Oriental fruit moth population trend graph Tufted apple bud moth population trend graph Redbanded leafroller population trend graph Lesser appleworm population trend graph Obliquebanded leafroller population trend graph Spotted tentiform leafminer population trend graph Dogwood borer population trend graph Peachtree borer population trend graph Lesser peachtree borer population trend graph Apple maggot population trend graph Brown marmorated stink bug population trend graph San Jose scale population trend graph

 



PREVIOUS UPDATES

October 9, 2018Apples in orchard

The final summary for 2018 was posted September 11. Trap counts will be updated through the end of the season and previous weeks’ summaries are archived farther down this page.

HOWEVER, if anyone comes across large numbers of BMSB adults congregating on homes, sheds, or vehicles in the coming weeks, or if you hear about large numbers of bugs occurring somewhere else, please get in contact with either Jim (828-684-3562)  or Steve (828-713-4000). By large numbers, we’re talking about hundreds to thousands. We’re always looking for good collection sites, and willing to travel on short notice to collect.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 24
Oct 1
Oct 8
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
17.3
2.0
2.3
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
1.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
1.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
5.9
2.9
2.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
21.4
8.2
12.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
7.8
1.0
2.2
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
5.0
4.0
Dogwood Borer
3.0
1.0
0.0
Peachtree Borer
1.0
0.5
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
1.0
0.0
0.0
San Jose Scale
32.5
32.5
45.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
Sep 26
Oct 2
Oct 9
Codling Moth
Apr 30
3276
3398
3552
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
4250
4402
4591
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
3931
4083
4271

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


October 2, 2018

Apple orchard


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 17
Sep 24
Oct 1
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
20.0
17.3
2.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
1.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
1.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
2.8
5.9
2.9
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
6.8
21.4
8.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
11.5
7.8
1.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
3.0
0.0
5.0
Dogwood Borer
2.0
3.0
1.0
Peachtree Borer
0.5
1.0
0.5
Lesser Peachtree Borer
7.5
1.0
0.0
San Jose Scale
152.5
32.5
32.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
Sep 17
Sep 26
Oct 2
Codling Moth
Apr 30
3107
3276
3398
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
4041
4250
4402
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
3721
3931
4083

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


September 26, 2018

Apple trees


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 10
Sep 17
Sep 24
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
15.0
20.0
17.3
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
1.0
Lesser Appleworm
1.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
0.5
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
2.2
2.8
5.9
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
4.7
6.8
21.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
14.5
11.5
7.8
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
3.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
7.0
2.0
3.0
Peachtree Borer
4.5
0.5
1.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
8.5
7.5
1.0
San Jose Scale
212.5
152.5
32.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
Sep 11
Sep 17
Sep 26
Codling Moth
Apr 30
2942
3107
3276
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
3841
4041
4250
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
3522
3721
3931

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


September 17, 2018


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Sep 5
Sep 10
Sep 17
Codling Moth
0.8
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
40.0
15.0
20.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
1.0
0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
1.0
0.5
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
4.2
2.2
2.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
5.9
4.7
6.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
14.0
14.5
11.5
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
3.0
Dogwood Borer
13.0
7.0
2.0
Peachtree Borer
28.5
4.5
0.5
Lesser Peachtree Borer
57.5
8.5
7.5
San Jose Scale
540.0
212.5
152.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
Sep 6
Sep 11
Sep 17
Codling Moth
Apr 30
2844
2942
3107
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
3723
3841
4041
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
3404
3522
3721

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


September 11, 2018apples on tree

As mid-September approaches, populations of most insect pests are on the decline. Codling moth, oriental fruit moth, and apple maggot are no longer of concern in >99% of orchards. While brown marmorated stink bug adults are still active, they too will soon begin to decline as they disperse to overwintering sites in the next 7 to 10 days. Overall, BMSB damage has been quite low, and averages less than 2% across more than 20 orchards sampled during the past week. The fact that overall damage did not appreciably increase since the last damage estimates in mid-August suggests that within-orchard populations are very low and the potential for further damage is also low. The expected rains associated with Hurricane Florence will further suppress BMSB activity.

Unless something unusual in the insect world occurs in the next couple of weeks, this will be the last Insect Update for 2018.

HOWEVER, if anyone comes across large numbers of BMSB adults congregating on homes, sheds, or vehicles in the coming weeks, or if you hear about large numbers of bugs occurring somewhere else, please get in contact with either Jim (828-684-3562)  or Steve (828-713-4000). By large numbers, we’re talking about hundreds to thousands. We’re always looking for good collection sites, and willing to travel on short notice to collect.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 27
Sep 5
Sep 10
Codling Moth
0.0
0.8
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
29.0
40.0
15.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
1.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
1.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
1.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
4.0
1.0
0.5
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
2.2
4.2
2.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
3.3
5.9
4.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
8.4
14.0
14.5
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
42.0
13.0
7.0
Peachtree Borer
27.0
28.5
4.5
Lesser Peachtree Borer
37.0
57.5
8.5
San Jose Scale
212.5
540.0
212.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
Aug 28
Sep 6
Sep 11
Codling Moth
Apr 30
2595
2844
2942
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
3424
3723
3841
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
3105
3404
3522

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


September 7, 2018

apples


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Aug 20
Aug 27
Sep 5
Codling Moth
0.5
0.0
0.8
Oriental Fruit Moth
25.7
29.0
40.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
1.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
1.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
2.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
24.5
4.0
1.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
1.8
2.2
4.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
2.4
3.3
5.9
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
4.8
8.4
14.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
5.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
32.0
42.0
13.0
Peachtree Borer
20.5
27.0
28.5
Lesser Peachtree Borer
12.5
37.0
57.5
San Jose Scale
67.5
212.5
540.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
Aug 21
Aug 28
Sep 6
Codling Moth
Apr 30
2458
2595
2844
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
3251
3424
3723
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
2932
3105
3404

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


August 28, 2018apple bins in orchard

With the exception of brown marmorated stink bug, insect populations are low throughout the region. Codling moth and OFM populations remain low in the vast majority of sites we’re monitoring, and apple maggot trap captures declined drastically during the past week.

BMSB does remain a potential threat to late-maturing fresh market apples. This is of greatest concern in higher elevations (>1500 ft) where first generation BMSB adults are still emerging. An insecticide application should be considered over the next week or so on fresh market culivars that won’t be harvested until after mid September.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
August 13
August 20
August 27
Codling Moth
0.5
0.5
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
17.0
25.7
29.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
1.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
1.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
2.0
0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
14.3
24.5
4.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
1.3
1.8
2.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
1.1
2.4
3.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
5.2
4.8
8.4
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
5.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
5.0
32.0
42.0
Peachtree Borer
25.0
20.5
27.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
3.0
12.5
37.0
San Jose Scale
2.5
67.5
212.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
August 14
August 21
August 28
Codling Moth
Apr 30
2295
2458
2595
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
3054
3251
3424
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
2735
2932
3105

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


August 22, 2018Bin of apples

With only a few exceptions, apple insect pest pressure continues to decline in commercial orchards across the region. While some new brown marmorated stink bug adults continue to emerge, populations have been very low in the vast majority of apples, as has damage. At this point in the season it is unlikely that BMSB will suddenly increase in numbers in apples. Damage levels continue to be very low, and continued insecticide applications are probably not necessary in most orchards.

Other insect populations are also low, including codling moth and OFM. While apple maggot flies continue to be captured in abandoned orchards, the threat of dispersal to managed orchards is low at this time.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
August 6
August 13
August 20
Codling Moth
0.5
0.3
0.5
Oriental Fruit Moth
13.0
17.0
25.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
1.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
1.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
1.0
0.0
2.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
21.3
14.3
24.5
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
1.0
1.3
1.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
1.8
1.1
2.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
1.3
5.2
4.8
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
3.0
0.0
5.0
Dogwood Borer
19.0
5.0
32.0
Peachtree Borer
22.5
25.0
20.5
Lesser Peachtree Borer
10.5
3.0
12.5
San Jose Scale
5.0
2.5
67.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
August 7
August 14
August 21
Codling Moth
Apr 30
2100
2295
2458
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
2819
3054
3251
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
2500
2735
2932

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


August 14, 2018Ladder beside apple tree

Overall insect pressure remains low in most areas. While degree-day accumulations coincide with early egg hatch of the third generation in lower elevation orchards (e.g., Cleveland, Lincoln Counties), this generation should not require control unless damage from previous generations is evident, which seems to be rare. In higher elevations (e.g., Henderson County), DD accumulations coincide with the tail end of second generation egg hatch, and pheromone trap captures remain low. OFM pheromone traps captures are also very low throughout the area.

Based on pheromone trap captures in multiple apple orchards, first generation adult brown marmorated stink bug emergence continues in the mountains, and has slowed down considerably in lower elevation orchards (less than 1000 ft elevation). Populations to date do not appear to be especially high, so two-week interval applications should be sufficient in those locations where protection is of greatest need – i.e., fresh market production.

We continue to capture apple maggot flies on traps in abandoned orchards, which is to be expected this time of the year. However, dispersal from these sites usually declines considerably later in the season, so further insecticide application specifically targeting this insect are probably not needed moving into next week, with the exception being those orchards near abandoned sites.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
July 30
August 6
August 13
Codling Moth
1.5
0.5
0.3
Oriental Fruit Moth
17.7
13.0
17.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
3.0
1.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
2.0
1.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
5.0
1.0
0.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
19.3
21.3
14.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.8
1.0
1.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
2.2
1.8
1.1
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
1.8
1.3
5.2
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
5.0
3.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
60.0
19.0
5.0
Peachtree Borer
29.5
22.5
25.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
10.5
10.5
3.0
San Jose Scale
2.5
5.0
2.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
July 30
August 7
August 14
Codling Moth
Apr 30
1950
2100
2295
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
2633
2819
3054
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
2314
2500
2735

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


ARainy apple orchardugust 7, 2018

Overall, insect populations are fairly low at this time, which is probably in part due to the heavy rains. Second generation codling moth flight is complete and trap captures are low throughout the region. While OFM populations can increase during the next several weeks, those numbers have also been quite low to date.

The two main insects of concern remain brown marmorated stink bug and apple maggot. First generation adult BMSB will continue to emerge over the next several weeks, but to date numbers have been fairly low. Apple maggot captures have been high for the past three weeks, and orchards near abandoned sites are at greatest risk. In those orchards where apple maggot is a potential concern, particularly with ‘Golden Delicious,’ and pyrethroids are not being applied for BMSB, imidacloprid should be considered.

In areas with heavy hail damage and where apples are destined for processing or juice, some thought should go into whether or not it is economically wise to apply pyrethroids for BMSB control. These apples already have damage similar to stink bug, and it is doubtful that spraying for BMSB will increase the value of the fruit. In addition, avoiding pyrethroid applications this year should help natural enemy populations return to pre-2017 levels, and reduce the potential for European red mite, woolly apple, and San Jose scale outbreaks next year. Just some food for thought.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
July 23
July 30
August 6
Codling Moth
2.5
1.5
0.5
Oriental Fruit Moth
23.0
17.7
13.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
6.0
3.0
1.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
1.0
2.0
1.0
Lesser Appleworm
2.0
5.0
1.0
Apple Maggot (abandoned and research)
7.7
19.3
21.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.7
0.8
1.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
2.8
2.2
1.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.5
1.8
1.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
14.0
5.0
3.0
Dogwood Borer
4.0
60.0
19.0
Peachtree Borer
65.0
29.5
22.5
Lesser Peachtree Borer
10.0
10.5
10.5
San Jose Scale
0.0
2.5
5.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
July 24
July 30
August 7
Codling Moth
Apr 30
1819
1950
2100
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
2473
2633
2819
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
2154
2314
2500

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


July 31, 2018

Three key insect pests are of concern at this time, including codling moth (whose populations are declining), brown marmorated stink bug, and apple maggot.

With codling moth degree day (DD) accumulations ranging from about 1975 in Henderson County to 2350 in Lincoln County, we are nearing the end of second generation flight throughout the region. Pheromone trap captures have been relatively low in the majority of orchards, but there are orchards that continue to have high trap captures and insecticides effective against this pest should continue to be applied.

First generation brown marmorated stink bug emergence is picking up steam at this time. In higher elevation orchards (about 2000 ft), pheromone trap captures have increased during each of the past two weeks, and the major emergence is expected to occur in the second to third week of August. BMSB control in these areas will be particularly important from mid-August to mid-September.

Off the mountain in Burke and Lincoln Counties, first generation adult emergence has been underway for the past several weeks. Overall numbers have been relatively low in our sample sites, but the threat of damage is expected to continue through the end of August.

Finally, apple maggot trap captures have been very high for each of the past two weeks. While orchards near non-sprayed orchards are at greatest risk, this insect often appears in orchards far from abandoned sites. Hence, if not trapping in individual orchards, one should assume a high risk for this pest.

Pyrethroid insecticides are commonly used at this time for BMSB control, and will also protect crops against apple maggot and oriental fruit moth. However, pyrethroids are generally weak against codling moth, so in those orchards with codling moth problems, the addition of Altacor or Delegate (whichever was not used against the first generation) should be considered. There are several premixes that include group 28 insecticides (active ingredients in Altacor and Exirel) with either lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege – 14 day PHI) or thiamethoxam (Voliam Flexi – 35 day PHI) that are options for control of both codling moth and BMSB in those orchards that did not use Altacor during the first codling moth generation.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
July 16
July 23
July 30
Codling Moth
4.8
2.5
1.5
Oriental Fruit Moth
34.0
23.0
17.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
1.0
6.0
3.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
1.0
2.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
2.0
5.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
7.7
19.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.5
0.7
0.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
4.3
2.8
2.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.8
0.5
1.8
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
14.0
5.0
Dogwood Borer
51.0
4.0
60.0
Peachtree Borer
37.5
65.0
29.5
Lesser Peachtree Borer
13.0
10.0
10.5
San Jose Scale
70.
0.0
2.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
July 17
July 24
July 30
Codling Moth
Apr 30
1661
1819
1950
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
2280
2473
2633
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
1960
2154
2314

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


JApple maggot fly adultuly 23, 2018

Based on degree-day accumulations and pheromone trap captures in non-managed orchards, codling moth and oriental fruit moth both remain active in the mountains (Henderson County), but populations appear to be low in many managed orchards. In most situations, a single insecticide application targeting codling moth will likely be sufficient, but all decisions should be based on trap captures in individual orchards.

As noted last week, first generation brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) adults are active in lower elevation orchards including Burke, Lincoln, and Cleveland Counties. In those orchards with a history of BMSB damage, insecticide sprays should be applied at this time. This would include products containing pyrethroids or Venom/Scorpion.

In higher elevation orchards (e.g., Henderson County), the BMSB degree-day development model is predicting first generation adults to begin emerging later this week. In fact there was a slight uptick in pheromone trap captures this week, suggesting some emergence has started. To avoid damage on the most susceptible cultivars, insecticides targeting BMSB should begin at your next sprays.

Finally, there was large emergence of apple maggot in our abandoned site in Henderson County this week, with 23 flies captured. Apple maggot emergence times can vary considerably within a region due to microclimate effects, but for those growers not trapping and unsure of maggot activity in their orchards, an insecticide effective against this pest should be made at this time. Pyrethroids applied for BMSB will also provide protection against apple maggot. If not applying a pyrethroid for BMSB, imidacloprid (Admire or generic products) will control apple maggot.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
July 9
July 16
July 23
Codling Moth
1.0
4.8
2.5
Oriental Fruit Moth
11.0
34.0
23.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
1.0
6.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
1.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
2.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
0.0
7.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.2
0.5
0.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
2.2
4.3
2.8
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.8
0.8
0.5
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
14.0
Dogwood Borer
23.0
51.0
4.0
Peachtree Borer
37.0
37.5
65.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
4.0
13.0
10.0
San Jose Scale
17.5
70.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
July 10
July 17
July 24
Codling Moth
Apr 30
1488
1661
1819
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
2071
2280
2473
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
1752
1960
2154

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


July 17, 2018Woolly apple aphid infestation

Codling moth degree day (DD) accumulations since biofix range from about 1660 in Henderson County to almost 2000 in Cleveland County, which coincides with second generation egg hatch of about 30% and 70% completion, respectively. In orchards not using mating disruption, an insecticide application effective against codling moth (Altacor or Delegate, whichever was NOT used against the first generation) should have been recently applied. Overall codling moth pressure has been fairly low in most orchards, so a single application is probably sufficient in many locations. If you are unsure of your population density, two applications at 14-day intervals are recommended. In orchards with very low codling moth pressure, as documented by low pheromone trap captures, other insecticides may also be considered, including Assail and Intrepid.

In orchards using mating disruption, insecticides targeting second generation codling moth are generally not needed unless pheromone trap captures indicate so – cumulative trap capture over successive weeks of >3 moths per trap.

Oriental fruit moth (OFM) populations are increasing across many locations. This is typical for this time of the year, and in the absence of mating disruption, populations often continue to rise into September. In past years monthly applications of sprayable OFM pheromone have been recommended to manage these late season surges, with the first application in late July to mid August, depending on population pressure. However, since the appearance of the BMSB and use of pyrethroids in August and September, OFM has become less of an issue, because pyrethroids used for BMSB are highly effective against OFM.

First generation brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) adults are active in lower elevation orchards (<1500 ft elevation). Trap captures have been moderately high in Polk and Cleveland Counties, so a pyrethroid or neonicotinoid (Actara, Venom or Scorpion) may be necessary in these areas.

Woolly apple aphid infestation

Woolly apple aphid infestation

Woolly apple aphid parasite

Woolly apple aphid parasite

Parasitized woolly apple aphids

Parasitized woolly apple aphids

At higher elevations, such as Henderson County, first generation adults have not yet emerged and pheromone trap captures remain very low. However, based on temperature forecasts and degree-day model predictions, the first adults are expected to begin emerging next week. To avoid early damage on highly susceptible varieties, such as Granny Smith, a BMSB spray (pyrethroid or neonicotinoid) should be considered at that time. The largest period of adult emergence, and greatest potential for damage, is not expected for another two weeks.

In recent years woolly apple aphid has become a more common occurrence throughout the region, likely due to increased pyrethroid use associated with BMSB. Now would be good time to begin scouting for this insect. There are very few insecticides with good knockdown activity; in fact Diazinon 50WP (the only formulation registered on apples) is perhaps the only dependable product for WAA at this time of the year. However, please note that it has a 4 day REI (re-entry interval) and a 21 day PHI (preharvest interval). A word of caution – predicting WAA population pressure based on last year’s situation is not a reliable system. WAA populations are known to fluctuate widely from year to year. High populations in one year often lead to high densities of the parasite Aphelinus mali, which can provide very effective biological control the following season. Hence, preventive insecticide applications are not recommended for this pest.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
July 2
July 9
July 16
Codling Moth
0.3
1.0
4.8
Oriental Fruit Moth
15.7
11.0
34.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
1.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.3
0.2
0.5
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
1.3
2.2
4.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
1.0
0.8
0.8
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
20.0
23.0
51.0
Peachtree Borer
30.0
37.0
37.5
Lesser Peachtree Borer
7.0
4.0
13.0
San Jose Scale
2.5
17.5
70.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
July 3
July 10
July 17
Codling Moth
Apr 30
1323
1488
1661
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
1876
2071
2280
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
1556
1752
1960

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


July 10, 2018photo of apples

Codling moth DD accumulations range from about 1480 in Henderson County to 1770 in Lincoln County, indicating that egg hatch of second generation codling moth is beginning in Henderson County and is about 40% complete in lower elevation orchards. Depending on population intensity, one or two applications of an insecticide effective against codling moth are recommended at this time. It should be noted that with a few exceptions, codling moth populations appear to be very low this year. There is minimal damage from the first generation and pheromone trap captures have been very low throughout the year.

In orchards using mating disruption for coding moth, insecticides targeting second generation codling moth are not necessary unless pheromone trap captures (orchard average per trap) exceeds a cumulative of 3 moths per trap over successive weeks when using CML2 or CMDA lures. In orchards that have used mating disruption for more than 3 or 4 years, insecticides are usually not necessary against the second generation. However, pheromone traps should be used to confirm low population pressure.

Emergence of first generation adult brown marmorated stink bug is now beginning in lower elevation orchards including Lincoln, Cleveland, and Burke Counties. First generation adult emergence in Henderson County is not expected for at least another two weeks.

In orchards where BMSB is a concern, an insecticide effective against this insect should be considered at this time. This includes most pyrethroid insecticides except Asana, the neonicotinoids Venom/Scorpion and Actara (35 day PHI), and the premix Besiege. The premixes Endigo and Voliam Flexi are also effective, but both have a 35 day PHI due to the thiamethoxam component.

Finally, in those orchards that had significant plum curculio damage earlier in the year, emergence of first generation adults occurs during July. These adults can feed on apples and peaches before seeking overwintering sites. Again, this is primarily a concern where a sufficient number of individuals completed development in fruit, which is usually very low in this region.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
June 25
July 2
July 9
Codling Moth
0.5
0.3
1.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
19.3
15.7
11.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
2.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
0.3
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.4
0.3
0.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.6
1.3
2.2
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.8
1.0
0.8
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
30.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
48.0
20.0
23.0
Peachtree Borer
28.0
30.0
37.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
13.5
7.0
4.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
2.5
17.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
June 25
July 3
July 10
Codling Moth
Apr 30
1124
1323
1488
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
1636
1876
2071
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
1317
1556
1752

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


July 3, 2018picture of apple orchard edge

Depending on location, codling moth degree-day accumulations since biofix range from about 1300 in Henderson County to almost 1600 in Lincoln County. Timing of first insecticide applications is recommended at about 1400 DD. Under low population densities, a single application between 1400 and 1500 DD will provide sufficient protection, while two successive applications at 14-day intervals are recommended if pheromone trap captures are exceeding 5 to 7 moths/trap or there is evidence of first generation damage. Depending on population abundance, codling moth could be an issue for another two to three weeks.

The normal early July complex of indirect pests continue to be observed throughout the region, including Japanese beetles, European red mite, apple aphids, and potato leafhopper. In most instances a single application of a miticide for ERM and a neonicotinoid for Japanese beetles, aphids and leafhoppers has provided excellent control.

Looking ahead to the next few weeks, first generation adult brown marmorated stink bugs are expected to begin emerging in about a week in lower elevation piedmont locations, and in about two to three weeks in higher elevation orchards (>2000 ft). Typically it is this generation of adults that can potentially cause the greatest levels of damage, particularly during the main emergence period in August. To date, BMSB numbers have been quite low throughout the region, but we have pheromone traps set up in numerous locations throughout the region. We will keep you updated on trap captures in the coming weeks.

Dinotefuran (Venom, Scorpion) and Bifenthrin (Bridage, Bifenture) Section 18 Approved for Control of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

The EPA has approved the NCDA&CS request for Section 18 emergency use exemptions of the active ingredients dinotefutran and bifenthrin on apples and peaches to control brown marmorated stink bug. Dinotefuran products available for use include Venom (Valent USA) and Scorpion (Gowan Company), while bifenthrin products include Brigade (FMC Corp.) and Bifenture (United Phosphorus, Inc.). This is a regional Section 18 approval for these materials that includes most of the tree fruit production states in the eastern US. Dinotefuran has a 3-day PHI, and a maximum of only two applications per season (Venom and/or Scorpion) may be applied. Product labels must be on hand when using these products, and can be downloaded below:

Venom

Scorpion 

Brigade

Bifenture


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
June 18
June 25
July 2
Codling Moth
1.0
0.5
0.3
Oriental Fruit Moth
15.7
19.3
15.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
1.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
2.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
0.3
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.5
0.4
0.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
1.0
0.6
1.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
2.3
0.8
1.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
12.0
30.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
18.0
48.0
20.0
Peachtree Borer
22.0
28.0
30.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
15.0
13.5
7.0
San Jose Scale
12.5
0.0
2.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
June 18
June 25
July 3
Codling Moth
Apr 30
936
1124
1323
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
1418
1636
1876
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
1099
1317
1556

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


June 26, 2018Green apple aphids on apple leaf

Little has changed since last week in higher elevation orchards such as Henderson County (>2000 ft). At about 1100 DD from biofix, we remain between flights of the first and second codling moth generations. In addition, oriental fruit moth populations remain low throughout the area, and first generation tufted apple bud moth flight is complete. European red mite, leafhoppers and aphids remain the key potential pests at this time.

In lower elevation orchards such as Cleveland and Lincoln Counties, second generation codling moths are beginning to emerge. Codling moth DD accumulations since biofix in Cleveland County is about 1380, and first sprays for second generation flight are recommended at 1400 to 1450, depending on codling moth pressure. In orchards with low pheromone trap captures and no damage from the first generation, a single application shortly after 1500 DD is usually sufficient.

Now is a good time to keep an eye out for Japanese beetles, especially on young trees, as high numbers of them have been noted in some locations. Most neonicotinoids will do a good job knocking down Japanese beetle numbers without inciting European red mite populations.

Brown marmorated stink bug populations remain low throughout the region. Currently, overwintered adults are declining in numbers and nymphs are in early stages of development – second or third instars.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
June 11
June 18
June 25
Codling Moth
0.8
1.0
0.5
Oriental Fruit Moth
16.0
15.7
19.3
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
1.0
1.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
2.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
0.0
0.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
1.5
0.5
0.4
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.7
1.0
0.6
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
2.5
2.3
0.8
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
40.0
12.0
30.0
Dogwood Borer
18.0
18.0
48.0
Peachtree Borer
16.0
22.0
28.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
42.5
15.0
13.5
San Jose Scale
7.5
12.5
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
June 11
June 18
June 25
Codling Moth
Apr 30
797
936
1124
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
1249
1418
1636
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
929
1099
1317

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


June 19, 2018Apple trees with mountains

We are currently in that time period where we are at the lowest risk for damage by direct insect pests. We are between generations of codling moth and TABM, nearing the end of second generation OFM (which is typically of little threat), and about a month before apple maggot emergence begins.

At this time, orchards should be scouted for several indirect pests, including apple aphid, potato leafhopper and European red mite. For aphids and leafhoppers, several neonicotinoids or closely related products are highly effective, including Admire (imidacloprid), Actara, Assail, Closer and Sivanto.

Looking ahead, second generation codling moth adult emergence should begin in lower-elevation orchards in the next seven to 10 days.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
June 4
June 11
June 18
Codling Moth
0.3
0.8
1.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
13.0
16.0
15.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
11.0
1.0
1.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
2.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
1.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
1.7
1.5
0.5
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
2.0
0.7
1.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
2.0
2.5
2.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
40.0
12.0
Dogwood Borer
18.0
18.0
18.0
Peachtree Borer
7.5
16.0
22.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
20.5
42.5
15.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
7.5
12.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
June 5
June 11
June 18
Codling Moth
Apr 30
654
797
936
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
1071
1249
1418
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
752
929
1099

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


June Woolly apple aphid on twig12, 2018

First generation codling moth flight has subsided in both the mountains and piedmont locations. The only location where codling moth remains a threat, and where insecticidal control should continue, is where populations are historically high. This includes orchards adjacent to poorly managed orchards or where wooden apple bins (originating from other states) are stored.

We are in the midst of second generation OFM flight, but as mentioned last week, this generation is usually of little threat where the first generation was adequately controlled. Based on recent observations in commercial orchards, there is very little if any damage by first generation codling moth or OFM.

If an insecticide effective against TABM, such as Altacor (or Voliam Flexi), Delegate or Intrepid, has not been applied within the last two weeks, an application should be made within the next week.

Finally, we’re approaching that time of the year when apple aphids and potato leafhopper populations are beginning to appear. Both insects prefer to feed on new shoot growth. Now is a good time to scout orchards to determine the need for control. They are easily controlled with a range of neonicotinoids or closely related compounds, such as Admire, Assail, Actara, Closer or Sivanto.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 29
June 4
June 11
Codling Moth
3.5
0.3
0.8
Oriental Fruit Moth
5.7
13.0
16.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
12.0
11.0
1.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
1.0
2.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
1.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
1.3
1.7
1.5
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
3.7
2.0
0.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.3
2.0
2.5
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
40.0
Dogwood Borer
31.0
18.0
18.0
Peachtree Borer
1.5
7.5
16.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
25.0
20.5
42.5
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
7.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
May 29
June 5
June 11
Codling Moth
Apr 30
501
654
797
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
883
1071
1249
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
564
752
929

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


June 5, 2018Delta trap for codling moth in tree

Codling moth degree day (DD) accumulations range from about 650 in Henderson County to 850 in Cleveland County, indicating that this pest remains a concern in higher elevations such as Henderson County and higher. At 850 DD, flight should be near complete in lower elevation orchards. Trap captures have been fairly low thus far, which is not unexpected considering the amount of rain we’ve experienced. Nonetheless, codling moth remains a threat in higher elevations, and if one is not using pheromone traps or does not know the population pressure in an orchard, one should make sure insecticide protection is provided for the next 10 to 14 days.

Tufted apple bud moth DD accumulations range from about 800 in Henderson County to 1200 in Cleveland County. If an insecticide effective against TABM has not been applied within the last week, one should be made at the next application. In areas off the mountain where TABM is a problem, we are nearing the end of optimum timing for TABM control. Remember that in addition to the main insecticides recommended for codling moth – Altacor (or Voliam Flexi) or Delegate – Intrepid is also highly effective against TABM.

Although second generation oriental fruit moth flight is beginning Henderson County and is underway in lower elevations, this generation is rarely a threat to apples, especially if the first generation was adequately controlled.

Finally, June is the month when scouting for key secondary pests should begin. Both European red mite and green apple aphids are prevalent during this time. There have been quite a few reports of European red mites in many orchards, which is obviously early for our location. Although there are many excellent miticides that can suppress populations, there are few that are effective knockdown products when populations are high – i.e., >10 adults per leaf. Probably the most effective knockdown material is Acramite, followed by Nealta and Portal. Agri-Mek can also work well in this capacity, but usually when applied closer to petal fall or first cover. Other products that have good residual activity and are ovicidal and sterilize adults include Zeal, Apollo and Savey. But these products will not provide knockdown control and work best when mite populations are low – no more than 1 or 2 adults per leaf.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 22
May 29
June 4
Codling Moth
1.8
3.5
0.3
Oriental Fruit Moth
4.3
5.7
13.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
12.0
12.0
11.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
1.0
2.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
1.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
2.7
1.3
1.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.7
3.7
2.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
2.2
0.3
2.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
26.0
31.0
18.0
Peachtree Borer
0.0
1.5
7.5
Lesser Peachtree Borer
47.0
25.0
20.5
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
May 22
May 29
June 5
Codling Moth
Apr 30
358
501
654
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
706
883
1071
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
386
564
752

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


May 30, 2018

The recent heavy rain has significantly suppressed insect activity. Trap captures for most insects were fairly low this week. However, when sunshine and warm weather return, you can expect the insect world to return to normal rather quickly. So for the next week, the insects of greatest concern are codling moth and tufted apple bud moth.

Depending on location, degree-day (DD) accumulations for codling moth range from about 530 in Henderson County to almost 700 in Cleveland County. If you are uncertain of your codling moth population, you should assume that codling moth will remain a threat for the next two weeks in Henderson County. Off the mountain, populations are nearing the end of the first generation flight, and the window for first generation control will close within in the next week.

Tufted apple bud moth DD accumulations range from about 660 in Henderson County to about 870 in Cleveland County, although TABM is generally not an issue outside of Henderson County. An insecticide effective against TABM during the next week should control the first generation. Regardless of whether one is using Altacor or Delegate for first generation codling moth, both products are excellent against TABM. If codling moth control is not required at this time, other options for excellent TABM control are Intrepid and Rimon, as well as the premix products Voliam Flexi, Besiege, Cormoran, and Minecto Pro.

The Comstock mealy bug is a sporadic pest that is most common in Polk County;  rarely is it a problem in other apple producing locations in NC. In those areas where this insect has a history of infesting the calyx end of fruit, now is the time for insecticide applications targeting this pest. There are not a lot of insecticides effective against this mealy bug, the most effective being Assail (or premixes containing acetamiprid) or Movento.

Finally, European red mite continues to be observed in more orchards than usual for this time of the year. With the rains letting up, expect ERM populations to continue to build up.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 14
May 22
May 29
Codling Moth
1.0
1.8
3.5
Oriental Fruit Moth
6.7
4.3
5.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
6.0
12.0
12.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
1.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
n/a
2.7
1.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
n/a
0.7
3.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.5
2.2
0.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
3.0
26.0
31.0
Peachtree Borer
1.0
0.0
1.5
Lesser Peachtree Borer
98.0
47.0
25.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
May 14
May 22
May 29
Codling Moth
Apr 30
196
358
501
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
503
706
883
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
184
386
564

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


May 22, 2018

The codling moth is the major insect pest of concern at this time, in both the mountains and piedmont regions. Cumulative degree days since biofix are about 360 in Henderson County and 475 in Cleveland County. Although pheromone traps should be used to dictate the need for the number of sprays to make against the first generation, in the majority of orchards two applications should be made; ideally one now and another in 2 weeks. Only one application is needed in mating disruption orchards, and that should be timed to coincide with tufted apple bud moth during the first or second week of June.

Many of the overwintered Brown marmorated stink bug adults have emerged from overwintering sites, and emergence should be complete in the mountains in the next week or two. Emergence is likely complete off the mountain in lower elevations. We are beginning to pick up adults on pheromone traps in apple orchards, with numbers varying considerably among sample sites. Overall, traps average about 2.6 adults per trap across 27 sample sites. High populations of the overwintering generation sometimes require control, and the optimum timing of an application is the last week of May or first week of June. In those situations an application of a neonicotinoid is recommended, with Actara and Belay the best choices. For those using Voliam Flexi, that contains the active ingredients in both Altacor and Actara.

There have been some reports of European red mite already appearing in apples. This is very early, although not unprecedented. Early mite populations are probably related to the extensive use of pyrethroids last year for BMSB. While the heavy rains have probably slowed down mite buildup, it would be wise to start monitoring for ERM at this time.

Compatibility of Movento with Products Containing Spreader Stickers:  For those growers who are using preventive applications of Movento for management of San Jose scale and/or woolly apple aphid, be sure to read the label about the need for a penetrating surfactant to enhance leaf uptake of this systemic insecticide. Of equal importance is to avoid using surfactants with sticking properties or pesticide products that contain built in stickers. These types of surfactants can interfere with leaf uptake of Movento. If a product containing a sticker or an adjuvant with sticker properties must be used, do not apply Movento and spray it by itself at another time.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 7
May 14
May 22
Codling Moth
4.5
1.0
1.8
Oriental Fruit Moth
16.0
6.7
4.3
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
13.0
6.0
12.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
n/a
2.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
1.3
n/a
0.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
2.3
0.5
2.2
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
0.0
3.0
26.0
Peachtree Borer
1.0
1.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
139.0
98.0
47.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
May 8
May 14
May 22
Codling Moth
Apr 30
93
196
358
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
372
503
706
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
52
184
386

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


May 15, 2018

We are approaching the time when insecticides for first generation codling moth will need to be initiated. Degree-day accumulations since biofix range from about 200 in Henderson County to 320 off the mountain in Cleveland County. In situations where moderate to high populations exist (i.e., probably observed some damage in 2017), the first spray should be applied at 250 DD. In orchards with low populations (low trap captures and no damage in 2017), the first application can be delayed until about 350 DD, which is predicted to occur next week in Henderson County. In orchards using mating disruption, it is highly unlikely that insecticides for lepidopteran pests (e.g., tufted apple bud moth, codling moth) will be needed until early to mid-June, although pheromone trap captures should be used to mitigate the unexpected. The cooler and rainy weather predicted for the coming days will help to reduce codling moth flight and egg laying.

For those planning to control San Jose scale post bloom with Esteem, Centaur or Movento  applications, sprays should be made by the end of this week for best results.

Finally, emergence of overwintering brown marmorated stink bug adults is about two-thirds complete in Henderson County, with emergence expected to be completed in the next two weeks. Emergence is complete off the mountain in lower-elevation orchards. To date, numbers have been fairly low in pheromone traps.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 30
May 7
May 14
Codling Moth
0.5
4.5
1.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
38.0
16.0
6.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
13.0
6.0
Redbanded Leafroller
1.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
n/a
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
1.3
1.3
n/a
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.3
2.3
0.5
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
0.0
0.0
3.0
Peachtree Borer
0.0
1.0
1.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
13.0
139.0
98.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
Apr 30
May 8
May 14
Codling Moth
Apr 30
93
196
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
247
372
503
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
52
184

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


May 8, 2018

Biofix dates now have been set for the three key lepidopteran pests of apples in the Hendersonville area. Biofix dates are 2 April for oriental fruit moth, 30 April for codling moth, and 4 May for tufted apple bud moth. Although we have not captured moths in lower elevation orchards in Polk or Cleveland Counties, historically biofix occurs about 6 days earlier in these locations.

In Henderson County, oriental fruit moth trap captures have declined considerably during the past two weeks and the overwintering generation is dying out. Insecticides applied at petal fall, or mating disruption if using it, should have controlled OFM at this time.

Based on the 30 April biofix date for codling moth, 93 DD have accumulated, so the timing of the initial application for first generation codling moth in Henderson County is predicted for 7 to 10 days. In orchards using mating disruption, insecticides targeting codling moth are not recommended until early to mid June, which will coincide with the timing needed for tufted apple bud moth.

In lower elevation orchards not using mating disruption, an insecticide targeting coding moth is recommended at this time if they have been captured in pheromone traps. If none have been captured, it is OK to delay this application for at least another 10 days.

Insecticides targeting plum curculio should have already been applied to most varieties. If an insecticide effective against this pest has not yet been made on late blooming cultivars, this should be done at soon as trees are free of pollinators.

Finally, for those who are targeting San Jose scale with post-bloom insecticide applications (Esteem, Centaur or Movento), there remains about a 2-week window of opportunity to apply these treatments and still obtain good control.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

 
HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 23
Apr 30
May 7
Codling Moth
0.0
0.5
4.5
Oriental Fruit Moth
90.0
38.0
16.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
13.0
Redbanded Leafroller
2.0
1.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.3
1.3
1.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.3
0.3
2.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
0.0
0.0
Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
1.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
13.0
139.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 
 Biofix
Apr 23
Apr 30
May 8
Codling Moth
Apr 30
93
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
171
247
372
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
52

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


May 1, 2018

On Monday we finally captured our first codling moth at the Research Station in Mills River. The lateness of this capture was surprising in that there are high populations in the orchard at the research station. However, the month of April was cool, particularly after dusk when codling moth flight begins. Codling moth flight is severely curtailed at temperatures below 60°F. Temperatures exceeded 60° between dusk and midnight on only 12 of 31 days in April, and of those 12, only 6 days had temperatures >60° for more than a 2 hour period. This may help explain the late biofix in the Hendersonville area. However, Bill Hanlin reported codling moth biofix on 15 April in Wilkes County, so this date does vary within the region. Even with this early biofix date, Wilkes County is still at only about 140 DD, and initial sprays for coding moth are not predicted for at least another week.

In most production areas in NC we remain at the petal fall stage. Key pests to be controlled at this time include plum curculio, oriental fruit moth (if not using mating disruption), rosy apple aphid (if not controlled prebloom). In some orchard green fruitworm may also be an issue, although widespread occurrence of this pest does not seem evident this year.

Extended Bloom and Risk to Bees

The 2018 bloom season is one of the longest in recent memory, with something in the orchard blooming since early April. This presents challenges to making petal fall insecticide applications in a timely manner that will minimize exposure to pollinators remaining in the orchard. Even in situations where hives have been removed from an orchard, bees from hives in nearby orchards or wild bees are likely foraging in trees with blooming flowers. Below are some guidelines to follow when making petal fall applications.

The Label:  For neonicotinoid insecticides and other recently registered products that are highly toxic to bees, the label’s Bee Advisory Box highlights those areas on the label where special precautions are required to protect pollinators. For most products that fall under this category, one of the following conditions must be met if applications must be made before flowering is complete and all petals have fallen:

  • Application is made after sunset
  • Application is made when temperatures are below 55°C
  • Beekeepers are notified no less than 48 hours prior to the time of the planned application so that the bees can be removed or otherwise protected
  • Application is made due to an imminent threat of significant crop loss, and documented determination consistent with an IPM plan or economic threshold is met. Every effort should be made to notify beekeepers no less than 48 hours before the application.

Some products that are highly toxic to bees still lack the Bee Advisory Box, but caution statements are usually highlighted in bold print. In most instances warnings state that the product should not be applied when target crops are in bloom, and that limiting applications to within 2 hours of sunrise or sunset will minimize risk to bees.

Insecticide Effects:  There is considerable variation among insecticides in their toxicity to bees, but very few are essentially non-toxic. Intrepid is one example of a product commonly used in apples that is non-toxic. However, several have very low levels of toxicity, and their labels do not contain warning statements. For those that are highly toxic, several of the neonicotinoids, including Admire, Actara, Belay and Venom, present a greater threat than others because they are systemic products that can accumulative in the nectar and pollen and can have effects on the entire hive.

Hence, if a petal fall insecticide application must be made with some blooms still in the orchard, read the label of the product to be applied to be sure you are within the letter of law. Below is a table of insecticides commonly used at petal fall to target key pests and their toxicity to bees.

Petal Fall Insecticide Recommendations Based on Selectivity Against Pests and Safety to Honey Bees
Chemical Toxicity to Bees* Plum Curculio Rosy Apple Aphid Oriental Fruit Moth San Jose Scale Green Fruit Worm
Actara HT E E F
Admire HT E
Assail MT F E G F G
Belay HT G E
Sivanto LT E
Avaunt MT E E E
Imidan HT E G G
Sevin HT F F G
Diazinon HT F E E
Centaur LT E
Esteem LT F G E G
Movento LT E E
Voliam Flexi HT E E E E
Intrepid NT G E
*HT=Highly toxic, MT=Moderately toxic, LT=Low toxicity, NT=Nontoxic

Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

 
HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 16
Apr 23
Apr 30
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
0.5
Oriental Fruit Moth
100.0
90.0
38.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
1.0
2.0
1.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.3
0.3
1.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.0
0.3
0.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
5.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
0.0
Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
13.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 
 Biofix
Apr 16
Apr 23
Apr 30
Codling Moth
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
103
171
247
Tufted Apple Bud Moth

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


April 24, 2018

On the research station, oriental fruit moth trap captures remain close to 100 per trap in apples, while codling moth and tufted apple bud moth are still zero. OFM degree days were 171 in Mills River on April 23rd. Brown marmorated stink bug adults are beginning to appear on traps in both the piedmont and mountains.

A detailed summary of petal fall considerations was posted last week (April 17th) and can be viewed here by scrolling down to “Previous Updates.”


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

 
HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 9
Apr 16
Apr 23
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
60.0
100.0
90.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
5.0
1.0
2.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.0
0.3
0.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.0
0.0
0.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
5.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 
 Biofix
Apr 9
Apr 16
Apr 23
Codling Moth
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
39
103
171
Tufted Apple Bud Moth

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


April 17, 2018

UPDATE ON CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH BIOFIX: Biofix for the OFM at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station in Mills River occurred on 2 April. Codling Moth biofix has not yet occurred at Mills River, but is expected to occur later this week with warmer weather returning. Biofix is usually about 5 to 7 days earlier in lower-elevation orchards, including Polk, Cleveland, Lincoln, and Burke Counties.

For real-time degree-day accumulations for key apple insects, visit the new NC Cooperative Extension’s Pest Risk website at:

https://agroclimatenc.ncsu.edu/apple/pestrisk.aspx

You will need to select your nearest weather station and the biofix date.

PREPARING FOR PETAL FALL SPRAYS: With petal fall sprays approaching, now is good time to remember the key insect pests targeted with this spray. The choice of insecticide(s) to be applied should be based on the following pests that pose a threat to orchards.

Plum Curculio is potentially the most damaging and critical insect to control at this time. Curculio adults overwinter primarily in wooded areas adjacent to orchards, and immigration into orchards extends from bloom through late petal fall. In cool springs, such as this year, the immigration period can be a little longer, but never beyond first cover. Damage is the result of females laying eggs in apples and males and females feeding on apples. The resultant scarred areas can be extensive under heavy pressure. Because of the curculio’s entrance from wooded areas, damage is highest adjacent to wooded borders up to about 50 to 75 feet into the orchard.

In the vast majority of cases, a single insecticide application made at petal fall provides high levels of control. The most effective insecticides include Avaunt, Actara, Imidan, and Belay. Sevin applied for thinning also has activity against plum curculio, but it is not nearly as effective as the aforementioned products. Among the premix products, Voliam Flexi, which contains the active ingredients in Actara (thiamethoxam) and Coragen (chlorantraniliprole), is also an option.

Rosy Apple Aphid (RAA) will often require control in orchards where an insecticide active against RAA was not applied before bloom (preferably a neonicotinoid or pyrethroid). Rosy apple aphid feeding results in malformed, curled leaves and misshaped, gnarled fruit. Damage is most prevalent on the exterior of orchards. Infestations vary considerably both among years and among orchards within years – i.e., often RAA never infests orchards not treated with insecticides. Scouting at petal fall to determine the need for an insecticide can be done by recording the percentage of shoots on about 10 trees near the periphery of the orchard that have RAA-infested leaves; a threshold for treating is 10% of leaves infested.

Insecticides effective against RAA at this time include Admire, Actara, Assail, Sivanto, and Movento.

Oriental Fruit Moth control may be necessary in orchards where mating disruption for this pest was not deployed before bloom. In orchards not using mating disruption, a single insecticide should be applied at petal fall, or between 400 to 500 DD after biofix (biofix occurred on April 2 in Henderson County). Sevin applied for thinning will also control first generation OFM if applications are properly timed. First generation damage can result in shoot infestations as occurs on peaches, but larvae can also infest fruit. Fruit damaged early in the season by OFM usually drops off the tree. Insecticides recommended for OFM at petal fall include Avaunt, Assail, Imidan, and Voliam Flexi.

Green Fruitworm is a sporadic pest that feeds directly on small developing fruit, but becomes apparent beforehand when feeding on new shoot growth. Using feeding damage on leaves is a good scouting method to determine the need for chemical control. Waiting until petal fall to control it can sometimes be too late to avoid damage, particularly on later blooming cultivars. Hence, if an insecticide needs to be applied before bloom is finished, the only option is Intrepid, which is nontoxic to bees.

San Jose Scale (SJS). With increasing SJS problems, even in orchards treated with oil + Lorsban before bloom, post-bloom sprays between petal fall and first cover have become a more effective approach to controlling this pest. First generation crawlers are the target of post bloom sprays. Crawlers begin to emerge in mid May, and populations peak in late May to early June. Application of an insecticide at either petal fall or first cover has provided excellent season-long control in orchards that have moved to a post-bloom management program. Insecticides most effective against SJS crawlers include Centaur, Esteem, Movento and Diazinon. For resistance management purposes, it is highly recommended that insecticides used to target SJS are rotated among years – i.e., if Esteem was used in 2017, use a different product this year. NOTE: while the recommended rate of Centaur 70WP is correctly listed as 34.5 oz/acre at petal fall in the Apple Management Guide, it is incorrectly listed as 9 to 12 oz at green tip to 1/2” green.

Petal Fall Insecticide Recommendations Based on Selectivity Against Pests

E=Excellent, G=Good, F=Fair, –=no activity

  Plum Curculio Rosy Apple Aphid Oriental Fruit Moth San Jose Scale Green Fruit Worm
Actara E E F
Admire E
Assail F E G F G
Belay G E
Sivanto E
Avaunt E E E
Imidan E G G
Diazinon F E E
Centaur E
Esteem F G E G
Movento E E
Voliam Flexi E E E E
Intrepid G E

Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

 
HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 2
Apr 9
Apr 16
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
40.0
60.0
100.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
4.0
5.0
1.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.0
0.0
0.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
5.0
Dogwood Borer
Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 
 Biofix
Apr 9
Apr 16

Codling Moth
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
39
103
Tufted Apple Bud Moth

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


 April 10, 2018

The weekly insect pest update is now hosted here at the new Southern Appalachian Apples Portal, which includes information on all aspects of apple production in the region. Every Tuesday, an email containing links to updates (including the insect pest update) will be sent to everyone on our email list. To be added to the list, click the “Subscribe” button on this page or send an email to sara_villani@ncsu.edu.

Summaries of local insect activity will begin later in April. For now, trap updates appear below, and an article on early season insecticide options appears here.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

 
HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 26
Apr 2
Apr 9
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
0.0
40.0
60.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
4.0
5.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
5.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 
 Biofix



Codling Moth
Oriental Fruit Moth
Tufted Apple Bud Moth

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


April 3, 2018


Summaries of local insect activity will begin later in April. For now, trap updates appear below, and an article on early season insecticide options appears here.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

 
HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 19
Mar 26
Apr 2
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
0.0
0.0
40.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
4.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.0
0.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
5.0
Dogwood Borer
Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
San Jose Scale
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 
 Biofix



Codling Moth
Oriental Fruit Moth
Tufted Apple Bud Moth

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.