NC State Extension

WNC Orchard Insect Populations


Apple trees with mountainsJune 19, 2018

We are currently in that time period where we are at the lowest risk for damage by direct insect pests. We are between generations of codling moth and TABM, nearing the end of second generation OFM (which is typically of little threat), and about a month before apple maggot emergence begins.

At this time, orchards should be scouted for several indirect pests, including apple aphid, potato leafhopper and European red mite. For aphids and leafhoppers, several neonicotinoids or closely related products are highly effective, including Admire (imidacloprid), Actara, Assail, Closer and Sivanto.

Looking ahead, second generation codling moth adult emergence should begin in lower-elevation orchards in the next seven to 10 days.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
June 4
June 11
June 18
Codling Moth
0.3
0.8
1.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
13.0
16.0
15.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
11.0
1.0
1.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
2.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
1.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
1.7
1.5
0.5
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
2.0
0.7
1.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
2.0
2.5
2.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
40.0
12.0
Dogwood Borer
18.0
18.0
18.0
Peachtree Borer
7.5
16.0
22.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
20.5
42.5
15.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
7.5
12.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
June 5
June 11
June 18
Codling Moth
Apr 30
654
797
936
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
1071
1249
1418
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
752
929
1099

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


2018 Pest Trends (click to enlarge)

Codling moth trend graph Oriental fruit moth trend graph Tufted apple bud moth trend graph Redbanded leafroller trend graph Lesser appleworm trend graph Obliquebanded leafroller trend graph Spotted tentiform leafminer trend graph Dogwood borer trend graph Peachtree borer trend graph Lesser peachtree borer trend graph Apple maggot trend graph Brown marmorated stink bug trend graph San Jose scale trend graph

P


PREVIOUS UPDATES

Woolly apple aphid on twigJune 12, 2018

First generation codling moth flight has subsided in both the mountains and piedmont locations. The only location where codling moth remains a threat, and where insecticidal control should continue, is where populations are historically high. This includes orchards adjacent to poorly managed orchards or where wooden apple bins (originating from other states) are stored.

We are in the midst of second generation OFM flight, but as mentioned last week, this generation is usually of little threat where the first generation was adequately controlled. Based on recent observations in commercial orchards, there is very little if any damage by first generation codling moth or OFM.

If an insecticide effective against TABM, such as Altacor (or Voliam Flexi), Delegate or Intrepid, has not been applied within the last two weeks, an application should be made within the next week.

Finally, we’re approaching that time of the year when apple aphids and potato leafhopper populations are beginning to appear. Both insects prefer to feed on new shoot growth. Now is a good time to scout orchards to determine the need for control. They are easily controlled with a range of neonicotinoids or closely related compounds, such as Admire, Assail, Actara, Closer or Sivanto.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 29
June 4
June 11
Codling Moth
3.5
0.3
0.8
Oriental Fruit Moth
5.7
13.0
16.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
12.0
11.0
1.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
1.0
2.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
1.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
1.3
1.7
1.5
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
3.7
2.0
0.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.3
2.0
2.5
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
40.0
Dogwood Borer
31.0
18.0
18.0
Peachtree Borer
1.5
7.5
16.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
25.0
20.5
42.5
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
7.5
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
May 29
June 5
June 11
Codling Moth
Apr 30
501
654
797
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
883
1071
1249
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
564
752
929

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


June 5, 2018Delta trap for codling moth in tree

Codling moth degree day (DD) accumulations range from about 650 in Henderson County to 850 in Cleveland County, indicating that this pest remains a concern in higher elevations such as Henderson County and higher. At 850 DD, flight should be near complete in lower elevation orchards. Trap captures have been fairly low thus far, which is not unexpected considering the amount of rain we’ve experienced. Nonetheless, codling moth remains a threat in higher elevations, and if one is not using pheromone traps or does not know the population pressure in an orchard, one should make sure insecticide protection is provided for the next 10 to 14 days.

Tufted apple bud moth DD accumulations range from about 800 in Henderson County to 1200 in Cleveland County. If an insecticide effective against TABM has not been applied within the last week, one should be made at the next application. In areas off the mountain where TABM is a problem, we are nearing the end of optimum timing for TABM control. Remember that in addition to the main insecticides recommended for codling moth – Altacor (or Voliam Flexi) or Delegate – Intrepid is also highly effective against TABM.

Although second generation oriental fruit moth flight is beginning Henderson County and is underway in lower elevations, this generation is rarely a threat to apples, especially if the first generation was adequately controlled.

Finally, June is the month when scouting for key secondary pests should begin. Both European red mite and green apple aphids are prevalent during this time. There have been quite a few reports of European red mites in many orchards, which is obviously early for our location. Although there are many excellent miticides that can suppress populations, there are few that are effective knockdown products when populations are high – i.e., >10 adults per leaf. Probably the most effective knockdown material is Acramite, followed by Nealta and Portal. Agri-Mek can also work well in this capacity, but usually when applied closer to petal fall or first cover. Other products that have good residual activity and are ovicidal and sterilize adults include Zeal, Apollo and Savey. But these products will not provide knockdown control and work best when mite populations are low – no more than 1 or 2 adults per leaf.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 22
May 29
June 4
Codling Moth
1.8
3.5
0.3
Oriental Fruit Moth
4.3
5.7
13.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
12.0
12.0
11.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
1.0
2.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
1.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
2.7
1.3
1.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.7
3.7
2.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
2.2
0.3
2.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
26.0
31.0
18.0
Peachtree Borer
0.0
1.5
7.5
Lesser Peachtree Borer
47.0
25.0
20.5
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
May 22
May 29
June 5
Codling Moth
Apr 30
358
501
654
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
706
883
1071
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
386
564
752

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


May 30, 2018

The recent heavy rain has significantly suppressed insect activity. Trap captures for most insects were fairly low this week. However, when sunshine and warm weather return, you can expect the insect world to return to normal rather quickly. So for the next week, the insects of greatest concern are codling moth and tufted apple bud moth.

Depending on location, degree-day (DD) accumulations for codling moth range from about 530 in Henderson County to almost 700 in Cleveland County. If you are uncertain of your codling moth population, you should assume that codling moth will remain a threat for the next two weeks in Henderson County. Off the mountain, populations are nearing the end of the first generation flight, and the window for first generation control will close within in the next week.

Tufted apple bud moth DD accumulations range from about 660 in Henderson County to about 870 in Cleveland County, although TABM is generally not an issue outside of Henderson County. An insecticide effective against TABM during the next week should control the first generation. Regardless of whether one is using Altacor or Delegate for first generation codling moth, both products are excellent against TABM. If codling moth control is not required at this time, other options for excellent TABM control are Intrepid and Rimon, as well as the premix products Voliam Flexi, Besiege, Cormoran, and Minecto Pro.

The Comstock mealy bug is a sporadic pest that is most common in Polk County;  rarely is it a problem in other apple producing locations in NC. In those areas where this insect has a history of infesting the calyx end of fruit, now is the time for insecticide applications targeting this pest. There are not a lot of insecticides effective against this mealy bug, the most effective being Assail (or premixes containing acetamiprid) or Movento.

Finally, European red mite continues to be observed in more orchards than usual for this time of the year. With the rains letting up, expect ERM populations to continue to build up.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 14
May 22
May 29
Codling Moth
1.0
1.8
3.5
Oriental Fruit Moth
6.7
4.3
5.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
6.0
12.0
12.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
1.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
n/a
2.7
1.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
n/a
0.7
3.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.5
2.2
0.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
3.0
26.0
31.0
Peachtree Borer
1.0
0.0
1.5
Lesser Peachtree Borer
98.0
47.0
25.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
May 14
May 22
May 29
Codling Moth
Apr 30
196
358
501
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
503
706
883
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
184
386
564

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


May 22, 2018

The codling moth is the major insect pest of concern at this time, in both the mountains and piedmont regions. Cumulative degree days since biofix are about 360 in Henderson County and 475 in Cleveland County. Although pheromone traps should be used to dictate the need for the number of sprays to make against the first generation, in the majority of orchards two applications should be made; ideally one now and another in 2 weeks. Only one application is needed in mating disruption orchards, and that should be timed to coincide with tufted apple bud moth during the first or second week of June.

Many of the overwintered Brown marmorated stink bug adults have emerged from overwintering sites, and emergence should be complete in the mountains in the next week or two. Emergence is likely complete off the mountain in lower elevations. We are beginning to pick up adults on pheromone traps in apple orchards, with numbers varying considerably among sample sites. Overall, traps average about 2.6 adults per trap across 27 sample sites. High populations of the overwintering generation sometimes require control, and the optimum timing of an application is the last week of May or first week of June. In those situations an application of a neonicotinoid is recommended, with Actara and Belay the best choices. For those using Voliam Flexi, that contains the active ingredients in both Altacor and Actara.

There have been some reports of European red mite already appearing in apples. This is very early, although not unprecedented. Early mite populations are probably related to the extensive use of pyrethroids last year for BMSB. While the heavy rains have probably slowed down mite buildup, it would be wise to start monitoring for ERM at this time.

Compatibility of Movento with Products Containing Spreader Stickers:  For those growers who are using preventive applications of Movento for management of San Jose scale and/or woolly apple aphid, be sure to read the label about the need for a penetrating surfactant to enhance leaf uptake of this systemic insecticide. Of equal importance is to avoid using surfactants with sticking properties or pesticide products that contain built in stickers. These types of surfactants can interfere with leaf uptake of Movento. If a product containing a sticker or an adjuvant with sticker properties must be used, do not apply Movento and spray it by itself at another time.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 7
May 14
May 22
Codling Moth
4.5
1.0
1.8
Oriental Fruit Moth
16.0
6.7
4.3
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
13.0
6.0
12.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
n/a
2.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
1.3
n/a
0.7
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
2.3
0.5
2.2
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
0.0
3.0
26.0
Peachtree Borer
1.0
1.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
139.0
98.0
47.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
May 8
May 14
May 22
Codling Moth
Apr 30
93
196
358
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
372
503
706
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
52
184
386

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


May 15, 2018

We are approaching the time when insecticides for first generation codling moth will need to be initiated. Degree-day accumulations since biofix range from about 200 in Henderson County to 320 off the mountain in Cleveland County. In situations where moderate to high populations exist (i.e., probably observed some damage in 2017), the first spray should be applied at 250 DD. In orchards with low populations (low trap captures and no damage in 2017), the first application can be delayed until about 350 DD, which is predicted to occur next week in Henderson County. In orchards using mating disruption, it is highly unlikely that insecticides for lepidopteran pests (e.g., tufted apple bud moth, codling moth) will be needed until early to mid-June, although pheromone trap captures should be used to mitigate the unexpected. The cooler and rainy weather predicted for the coming days will help to reduce codling moth flight and egg laying.

For those planning to control San Jose scale post bloom with Esteem, Centaur or Movento  applications, sprays should be made by the end of this week for best results.

Finally, emergence of overwintering brown marmorated stink bug adults is about two-thirds complete in Henderson County, with emergence expected to be completed in the next two weeks. Emergence is complete off the mountain in lower-elevation orchards. To date, numbers have been fairly low in pheromone traps.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 30
May 7
May 14
Codling Moth
0.5
4.5
1.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
38.0
16.0
6.7
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
13.0
6.0
Redbanded Leafroller
1.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
n/a
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
1.3
1.3
n/a
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.3
2.3
0.5
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
0.0
0.0
3.0
Peachtree Borer
0.0
1.0
1.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
13.0
139.0
98.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 Biofix
Apr 30
May 8
May 14
Codling Moth
Apr 30
93
196
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
247
372
503
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
52
184

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


May 8, 2018

Biofix dates now have been set for the three key lepidopteran pests of apples in the Hendersonville area. Biofix dates are 2 April for oriental fruit moth, 30 April for codling moth, and 4 May for tufted apple bud moth. Although we have not captured moths in lower elevation orchards in Polk or Cleveland Counties, historically biofix occurs about 6 days earlier in these locations.

In Henderson County, oriental fruit moth trap captures have declined considerably during the past two weeks and the overwintering generation is dying out. Insecticides applied at petal fall, or mating disruption if using it, should have controlled OFM at this time.

Based on the 30 April biofix date for codling moth, 93 DD have accumulated, so the timing of the initial application for first generation codling moth in Henderson County is predicted for 7 to 10 days. In orchards using mating disruption, insecticides targeting codling moth are not recommended until early to mid June, which will coincide with the timing needed for tufted apple bud moth.

In lower elevation orchards not using mating disruption, an insecticide targeting coding moth is recommended at this time if they have been captured in pheromone traps. If none have been captured, it is OK to delay this application for at least another 10 days.

Insecticides targeting plum curculio should have already been applied to most varieties. If an insecticide effective against this pest has not yet been made on late blooming cultivars, this should be done at soon as trees are free of pollinators.

Finally, for those who are targeting San Jose scale with post-bloom insecticide applications (Esteem, Centaur or Movento), there remains about a 2-week window of opportunity to apply these treatments and still obtain good control.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

 
HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 23
Apr 30
May 7
Codling Moth
0.0
0.5
4.5
Oriental Fruit Moth
90.0
38.0
16.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
13.0
Redbanded Leafroller
2.0
1.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.3
1.3
1.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.3
0.3
2.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
0.0
0.0
Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
1.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
13.0
139.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 
 Biofix
Apr 23
Apr 30
May 8
Codling Moth
Apr 30
93
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
171
247
372
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
May 4
52

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


May 1, 2018

On Monday we finally captured our first codling moth at the Research Station in Mills River. The lateness of this capture was surprising in that there are high populations in the orchard at the research station. However, the month of April was cool, particularly after dusk when codling moth flight begins. Codling moth flight is severely curtailed at temperatures below 60°F. Temperatures exceeded 60° between dusk and midnight on only 12 of 31 days in April, and of those 12, only 6 days had temperatures >60° for more than a 2 hour period. This may help explain the late biofix in the Hendersonville area. However, Bill Hanlin reported codling moth biofix on 15 April in Wilkes County, so this date does vary within the region. Even with this early biofix date, Wilkes County is still at only about 140 DD, and initial sprays for coding moth are not predicted for at least another week.

In most production areas in NC we remain at the petal fall stage. Key pests to be controlled at this time include plum curculio, oriental fruit moth (if not using mating disruption), rosy apple aphid (if not controlled prebloom). In some orchard green fruitworm may also be an issue, although widespread occurrence of this pest does not seem evident this year.

Extended Bloom and Risk to Bees

The 2018 bloom season is one of the longest in recent memory, with something in the orchard blooming since early April. This presents challenges to making petal fall insecticide applications in a timely manner that will minimize exposure to pollinators remaining in the orchard. Even in situations where hives have been removed from an orchard, bees from hives in nearby orchards or wild bees are likely foraging in trees with blooming flowers. Below are some guidelines to follow when making petal fall applications.

The Label:  For neonicotinoid insecticides and other recently registered products that are highly toxic to bees, the label’s Bee Advisory Box highlights those areas on the label where special precautions are required to protect pollinators. For most products that fall under this category, one of the following conditions must be met if applications must be made before flowering is complete and all petals have fallen:

  • Application is made after sunset
  • Application is made when temperatures are below 55°C
  • Beekeepers are notified no less than 48 hours prior to the time of the planned application so that the bees can be removed or otherwise protected
  • Application is made due to an imminent threat of significant crop loss, and documented determination consistent with an IPM plan or economic threshold is met. Every effort should be made to notify beekeepers no less than 48 hours before the application.

Some products that are highly toxic to bees still lack the Bee Advisory Box, but caution statements are usually highlighted in bold print. In most instances warnings state that the product should not be applied when target crops are in bloom, and that limiting applications to within 2 hours of sunrise or sunset will minimize risk to bees.

Insecticide Effects:  There is considerable variation among insecticides in their toxicity to bees, but very few are essentially non-toxic. Intrepid is one example of a product commonly used in apples that is non-toxic. However, several have very low levels of toxicity, and their labels do not contain warning statements. For those that are highly toxic, several of the neonicotinoids, including Admire, Actara, Belay and Venom, present a greater threat than others because they are systemic products that can accumulative in the nectar and pollen and can have effects on the entire hive.

Hence, if a petal fall insecticide application must be made with some blooms still in the orchard, read the label of the product to be applied to be sure you are within the letter of law. Below is a table of insecticides commonly used at petal fall to target key pests and their toxicity to bees.

Petal Fall Insecticide Recommendations Based on Selectivity Against Pests and Safety to Honey Bees
Chemical Toxicity to Bees* Plum Curculio Rosy Apple Aphid Oriental Fruit Moth San Jose Scale Green Fruit Worm
Actara HT E E F
Admire HT E
Assail MT F E G F G
Belay HT G E
Sivanto LT E
Avaunt MT E E E
Imidan HT E G G
Sevin HT F F G
Diazinon HT F E E
Centaur LT E
Esteem LT F G E G
Movento LT E E
Voliam Flexi HT E E E E
Intrepid NT G E
*HT=Highly toxic, MT=Moderately toxic, LT=Low toxicity, NT=Nontoxic

Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

 
HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 16
Apr 23
Apr 30
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
0.5
Oriental Fruit Moth
100.0
90.0
38.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
1.0
2.0
1.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.3
0.3
1.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.0
0.3
0.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
5.0
0.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
0.0
Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
13.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 
 Biofix
Apr 16
Apr 23
Apr 30
Codling Moth
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
103
171
247
Tufted Apple Bud Moth

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


April 24, 2018

On the research station, oriental fruit moth trap captures remain close to 100 per trap in apples, while codling moth and tufted apple bud moth are still zero. OFM degree days were 171 in Mills River on April 23rd. Brown marmorated stink bug adults are beginning to appear on traps in both the piedmont and mountains.

A detailed summary of petal fall considerations was posted last week (April 17th) and can be viewed here by scrolling down to “Previous Updates.”


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

 
HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 9
Apr 16
Apr 23
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
60.0
100.0
90.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
5.0
1.0
2.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.0
0.3
0.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.0
0.0
0.3
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
5.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 
 Biofix
Apr 9
Apr 16
Apr 23
Codling Moth
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
39
103
171
Tufted Apple Bud Moth

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


April 17, 2018

UPDATE ON CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH BIOFIX: Biofix for the OFM at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station in Mills River occurred on 2 April. Codling Moth biofix has not yet occurred at Mills River, but is expected to occur later this week with warmer weather returning. Biofix is usually about 5 to 7 days earlier in lower-elevation orchards, including Polk, Cleveland, Lincoln, and Burke Counties.

For real-time degree-day accumulations for key apple insects, visit the new NC Cooperative Extension’s Pest Risk website at:

https://agroclimatenc.ncsu.edu/apple/pestrisk.aspx

You will need to select your nearest weather station and the biofix date.

PREPARING FOR PETAL FALL SPRAYS: With petal fall sprays approaching, now is good time to remember the key insect pests targeted with this spray. The choice of insecticide(s) to be applied should be based on the following pests that pose a threat to orchards.

Plum Curculio is potentially the most damaging and critical insect to control at this time. Curculio adults overwinter primarily in wooded areas adjacent to orchards, and immigration into orchards extends from bloom through late petal fall. In cool springs, such as this year, the immigration period can be a little longer, but never beyond first cover. Damage is the result of females laying eggs in apples and males and females feeding on apples. The resultant scarred areas can be extensive under heavy pressure. Because of the curculio’s entrance from wooded areas, damage is highest adjacent to wooded borders up to about 50 to 75 feet into the orchard.

In the vast majority of cases, a single insecticide application made at petal fall provides high levels of control. The most effective insecticides include Avaunt, Actara, Imidan, and Belay. Sevin applied for thinning also has activity against plum curculio, but it is not nearly as effective as the aforementioned products. Among the premix products, Voliam Flexi, which contains the active ingredients in Actara (thiamethoxam) and Coragen (chlorantraniliprole), is also an option.

Rosy Apple Aphid (RAA) will often require control in orchards where an insecticide active against RAA was not applied before bloom (preferably a neonicotinoid or pyrethroid). Rosy apple aphid feeding results in malformed, curled leaves and misshaped, gnarled fruit. Damage is most prevalent on the exterior of orchards. Infestations vary considerably both among years and among orchards within years – i.e., often RAA never infests orchards not treated with insecticides. Scouting at petal fall to determine the need for an insecticide can be done by recording the percentage of shoots on about 10 trees near the periphery of the orchard that have RAA-infested leaves; a threshold for treating is 10% of leaves infested.

Insecticides effective against RAA at this time include Admire, Actara, Assail, Sivanto, and Movento.

Oriental Fruit Moth control may be necessary in orchards where mating disruption for this pest was not deployed before bloom. In orchards not using mating disruption, a single insecticide should be applied at petal fall, or between 400 to 500 DD after biofix (biofix occurred on April 2 in Henderson County). Sevin applied for thinning will also control first generation OFM if applications are properly timed. First generation damage can result in shoot infestations as occurs on peaches, but larvae can also infest fruit. Fruit damaged early in the season by OFM usually drops off the tree. Insecticides recommended for OFM at petal fall include Avaunt, Assail, Imidan, and Voliam Flexi.

Green Fruitworm is a sporadic pest that feeds directly on small developing fruit, but becomes apparent beforehand when feeding on new shoot growth. Using feeding damage on leaves is a good scouting method to determine the need for chemical control. Waiting until petal fall to control it can sometimes be too late to avoid damage, particularly on later blooming cultivars. Hence, if an insecticide needs to be applied before bloom is finished, the only option is Intrepid, which is nontoxic to bees.

San Jose Scale (SJS). With increasing SJS problems, even in orchards treated with oil + Lorsban before bloom, post-bloom sprays between petal fall and first cover have become a more effective approach to controlling this pest. First generation crawlers are the target of post bloom sprays. Crawlers begin to emerge in mid May, and populations peak in late May to early June. Application of an insecticide at either petal fall or first cover has provided excellent season-long control in orchards that have moved to a post-bloom management program. Insecticides most effective against SJS crawlers include Centaur, Esteem, Movento and Diazinon. For resistance management purposes, it is highly recommended that insecticides used to target SJS are rotated among years – i.e., if Esteem was used in 2017, use a different product this year. NOTE: while the recommended rate of Centaur 70WP is correctly listed as 34.5 oz/acre at petal fall in the Apple Management Guide, it is incorrectly listed as 9 to 12 oz at green tip to 1/2” green.

Petal Fall Insecticide Recommendations Based on Selectivity Against Pests

E=Excellent, G=Good, F=Fair, –=no activity

  Plum Curculio Rosy Apple Aphid Oriental Fruit Moth San Jose Scale Green Fruit Worm
Actara E E F
Admire E
Assail F E G F G
Belay G E
Sivanto E
Avaunt E E E
Imidan E G G
Diazinon F E E
Centaur E
Esteem F G E G
Movento E E
Voliam Flexi E E E E
Intrepid G E

Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

 
HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Apr 2
Apr 9
Apr 16
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
40.0
60.0
100.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
4.0
5.0
1.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.0
0.0
0.3
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
5.0
Dogwood Borer
Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 
 Biofix
Apr 9
Apr 16

Codling Moth
Oriental Fruit Moth
Apr 2
39
103
Tufted Apple Bud Moth

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


 April 10, 2018

The weekly insect pest update is now hosted here at the new Southern Appalachian Apples Portal, which includes information on all aspects of apple production in the region. Every Tuesday, an email containing links to updates (including the insect pest update) will be sent to everyone on our email list. To be added to the list, click the “Subscribe” button on this page or send an email to sara_villani@ncsu.edu.

Summaries of local insect activity will begin later in April. For now, trap updates appear below, and an article on early season insecticide options appears here.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

 
HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 26
Apr 2
Apr 9
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
0.0
40.0
60.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
4.0
5.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
5.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
San Jose Scale
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 
 Biofix



Codling Moth
Oriental Fruit Moth
Tufted Apple Bud Moth

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


April 3, 2018


Summaries of local insect activity will begin later in April. For now, trap updates appear below, and an article on early season insecticide options appears here.


Learn more about southeastern apple insect pests at the Apple Insect Management page.


2018 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

 
HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
Mar 19
Mar 26
Apr 2
Codling Moth
0.0
0.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
0.0
0.0
40.0
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
0.0
0.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
4.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
Lesser Appleworm
Apple Maggot
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – mountains)
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (commercial – upper piedmont)
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (research – unsprayed)
0.0
0.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
0.0
0.0
5.0
Dogwood Borer
Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
0.0
0.0
0.0
San Jose Scale
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2018 Accumulated Degree Days

 
Henderson County
 
 Biofix



Codling Moth
Oriental Fruit Moth
Tufted Apple Bud Moth

About degree-day models: The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.

CODLING MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.

  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:

  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.

  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.

  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.

  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.

 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:

  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.

  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.


Written By

Photo of Jim Walgenbach, N.C. Cooperative ExtensionDr. Jim WalgenbachExtension Entomology Specialist (Fruits / Vegetables) (828) 687-0570 (Office) jim_walgenbach@ncsu.eduEntomology and Plant Pathology - NC State University
Page Last Updated: 4 days ago
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